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A description of the sub urbanization which began in cities all across the nation

  • The little towns of ancient civilizations, both in the Old World and the New, were only possible because of improvements in agriculture and transportation;
  • Starting around the 1930s, white Americans began an era of suburbanization by leaving cities for more "family oriented" areas.

From ancient times, the city was the place to live, close to the arts and seat of government. The upper classes lived within walking distance of work and cultural activities, while the poor laborers lived in the suburbs, or the rough edges of town.

Residents wanted to pattern them after the big cities. This development gave new meaning to family, home life, and the yard. That said, fewer than 50 percent of families owned their own home well into the twentieth century. As Rome notes in Bulldozer in the Countryside and as Jackson details in chapters eleven and twelve, the years between the two world wars witnessed the demand for more housing, especially as soldiers returned home.

By grading certain areas based on "desirability" i. Encouraged by the emergence of new cities of wartime production and government assistance for veterans, increasing numbers of Americans could afford to buy homes. Given the massive growth of affordable dwellings accessible by the highway and train, families flocked to planned towns such as Levittown where all the details such as schools and public works were already in place so that builders could erect as many as thirty homes a day to meet demand 235.

In addition to highways to transport suburban residents to the cities and garages in the new suburban homes, post-war suburbs also contributed to new forms of commercialism including the motel, drive-in theaters, fast food, and shopping malls.

He enhances their arguments with his own. This book is perfect for both graduates and undergraduates, as well as a reader interested in the rise of suburbs. Commentary Amy Lechner, Fall 2007 Crabgrass Frontier is a solid overview and introduction to the causes of what became a unique form of American living: Further, Jackson compares the American experience in cities, and later, in the areas surrounding to European counterparts to illustrate the singularity of the American experience. Although Jackson draws examples from various sized cities across the nation, much of the focus is on Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.

Despite the breadth of coverage, however, Crabgrass Frontier is an overall unsatisfying read. Firstly, the writing style is very dry, making the subject matter tedious and unnecessarily technical. Secondly, Crabgrass Frontier is already showing its age, both in its conclusions and its scholarship. The matter of scholarship is really the third limiting aspect of the book.

Jackson provides a synthesis of a variety of topics, but lacks much on the cultural changes of suburbanism. He hints at the privatization of American life and discusses the changing nature of shopping and movie-going, but these sections are very brief and skim the surface without much useful analysis. Jackson cannot be faulted for inaccurately predicting twenty years in the future and will likely address these statements in a revised edition, but this case underscores the dated feeling that runs throughout Crabgrass Frontier, especially in an otherwise solid, concise conclusion.

While he does cite some connections to English antecedents, he clearly sees its development in the United States as being a singularly American feature. What is not clear is why he finds it necessary to ignore the English and European antecedents of suburbs. Any suburban development in this country was clearly going to be different with the amount of land that planners had available to exploit and with the number of cars owned which Jackson illustrates with tables.

Transportation was the key to the rapid spread of the suburb beginning in the mid-nineteenth century when commuter railroads and horse cars made it possible to travel easily a description of the sub urbanization which began in cities all across the nation the city and the outlying area.

Jackson also makes the important connection between the suburb and the middle-class emphasis on family. The suburb created family space with each house having its own tiny park that created a buffer of privacy. He illustrates how it developed with no historical precedence of inner city apartment buildings or townhouses that cities on the east coast or even Chicago had experienced.

Developers understood that they benefited from an emphasis on highways rather than mass transit and Jackson covers this story convincingly. He does discuss the impact that the computer might have on the dichotomy of city versus suburbia but he, not surprisingly, misses the mark on the impact that the dominance of the internet in current life might have on how people work.

It would also be interesting to know what effect the green movement might have on suburbs in the future.

Crabgrass Frontier

Will the amount of driving that is necessary in suburban life be targeted as unsustainable or will the green canopy of the suburb be seen as negating the impact of the carbon footprint. This history of the suburb is valuable in so many ways, but I found the organization of the book with the many sub-headings made it seem like reading the text for a documentary and I kept hearing the accompanying voice of a narrator in my head.

Brody, Spring 2011 Crabgrass Frontier, with its cleverly titled allusion to Turner, is a classic work and winner of the Bancroft Prize, while it may be au courant to note its outmoded predictions or traditional prose, one must see it in its time and place it within its historiographical context.

Jackson is working at a time when social history and American Studies were dueling for the hand of new approaches to the past and I believe that this work is using urban history to read the suburbs. I suggest that Jackson was moving forward an argument that the suburbs were a place first and foremost of American imagination, and it was this that clearly differentiated and evidenced as part of the American experience.

Jackson make several points that are well worth reiterating.

  1. The development of means of transportation, dating from the invention of the wheel in about 3500 bc, made it possible for the surplus from the countryside to feed urban populations, a system that continues to the present day.
  2. Historians like Thomas Sugrue also remind us that the suburbs were plagued by racial intolerance, violence and that many of the cities ills were transplanted to the suburbs. Riot and disorder in Jacksonian America.
  3. By the early years of the twentieth century, US cities on the East Coast were almost unimaginably crowded, and their living conditions continued to be wretched for many of their residents.

First, the built environment and abundant land allowed for a uniquely American character and physical and political development.

Second, the willingness to embrace new technologies, such as transportation, allowed for rapid change and innovation. Read this way, Jackson asks some important questions about why the suburbs developed the way they did and he looks at those factors for some high level cause and effect, this is not to say he ignores the details or that he does not do analysis, instead I found the sub headings to be helpful.

While I found myself wanting more, I appreciated the broader context in which to place my desires. Like the suburbs, one has to seed the lawn of history and then allow others to plant the garden with unique items. In other words, one can trace the work of the next generation of historians directly to Crabgrass Frontier. The essential message in this work is that suburbia was the confluence of planning, policy and technology that highlighted and propelled extant trends that had begun in the nineteenth century.

  1. Further, Jackson compares the American experience in cities, and later, in the areas surrounding to European counterparts to illustrate the singularity of the American experience. The number of urban residents in these nations will increase greatly in the years ahead as people there move to urban areas and as their populations continue to grow through natural fertility.
  2. By grading certain areas based on "desirability" i. Congested, overcrowded, and polluted, Mumbai has become a difficult place to live.
  3. Crime also became a significant problem, as did riots and other mob violence beginning in the 1830s.
  4. After all, his working definition of suburbs contained a class component identified by the middle-class and upper-class 11.

This is a highly accessible book that has stood the test of time and will inform by helping to keep in mind the various factors at play when looking at the built environment.

Brody, Fall 2011 Looking back almost one year later, I find Crabgrass Frontier to be more inspirational than I originally thought, clearly the definition of suburbs put forth by Jackson rings true and my comments about the imagination and American character also seem most valid.

In close reading, what stands out are the meta questions a description of the sub urbanization which began in cities all across the nation place, use and geography and perhaps this social geography is the reading that has the most relevance for me. Working towards a definition of social geography, I see it as changes in the environment and its use and quantifying those changes — and here is where Jackson shows his social history muscle, by asking those questions with a qualitative answer.

Historians like Thomas Sugrue also remind us that the suburbs were plagued by racial intolerance, violence and that many of the cities ills were transplanted to the suburbs.

The essential questions for anyone interested in the suburban experience are raised in Crabgrass Frontier, however, many historians have dissected and invented new threads to explore while trying to empower those who moved away from cities and in the most modern sense, those who moved back. Richard Hardesty, Fall 2011 Kenneth T. As a result, Jackson sought to explain the differences that characterized American land use and spatial arrangements when compared to the rest of the world.

He thus offered a broad synthesis that focused on the importance of land development, inexpensive lots, efficient construction methods, improved transportation, government incentives, and racial homogeneity. In examining the American suburbs, Jackson argued that suburbanization represented a natural process aided by governmental intervention, facilitating the American desire for a lifestyle characterized by home ownership in sparsely populated, racially homogeneous neighborhoods that are significantly separated from work and the urban environment 10, 11.

Jackson presented a strong argument that advanced several important historiographical themes that characterized urban scholarship. As the twentieth century progressed, suburbanization emerged in response to the growing problems that confronted the urban environment. Issues of congestion, decentralization, and black migration facilitated the departure of whites first to the urban periphery and then to the suburbs.

To compound matters, efforts to bring people back into the city backfired. The freeways, for instance, sought to take advantage of the automobile by making downtown and, by extension, the city more accessible, but did the reverse as more people continued to leave.

White Americans thus used the suburbs as a haven that separated them from the congestion, decentralization, and black migration that helped define the urban crisis. Yet, because Jackson presented his analysis as a synthesis, he exposed himself to generalizations that sometimes hurt his presentation. Yet, while Jackson mentioned the presence of service workers in upper class suburbs, he lent the impression that they did not represent true suburbanites.

After all, his working definition of suburbs contained a class component identified by the middle-class and upper-class 11. In general, Jackson describes suburban movement as a result of two major factors: Jackson traces the emergence of this movement to city peripheries as a purposeful choice for elite and middle class in early years of the nineteenth century, nearly a century prior to more recent notions of post-war or white flight housing development strategies.

Jackson also explains how many suburban developers used ownership in trolley, horse car, or rail systems to promote development in suburban communities by establishing transport routes and offering commuter short rail service and competitive fare rates. As operating costs soared, transit owners hesitated to raise fares and failed to earn enough funds to upgrade systems. Ridership decreased and many companies went out of business. The invention of motor cars only exacerbated the decline of rail trolley transports.

As travel by cars grew in popularity, suburban developers influenced city boards to build parkways and commuter highways and created instant value in potential land development projects. From this framework, the suburb was created not by squeezing people out, but by expanding the walking city work-residence pattern as new transportation technology emerged.

Jackson presents a second compelling argument in that the development of suburbs reflected cultural norms about the role of the family and home as places of status and domesticity. As the field of architecture professionalized, home designers guided the public in creating homes that conveyed certain styles or tones. These styles created an image of low-density living in neighborhoods with detached homes with yards as the new American ideal rather than row houses.

The outcome of these various attempts failed to live up to expectations, but the HOLC did provide the advantage of uniform loan payments for home purchases with the possibility of loan renewals. The downside to the HOLC was the appraisal and rating system that stigmatized and racialized valuations of neighborhoods based on density, ethnic or racial composition, or age of structures.

After the Second World War, the need for housing presented another problem for the federal government and construction industry also responded by building up suburban areas rather than revitalizing urban areas. He provides statistical analysis for financial reasons to move further from jobs and psychological and social reasons for moving away from city congestion to create residential retreats.

Then as the nation faced financial crisis in the 1930s, Jackson shows how federal support of the suburban ideal as a residential retreat and homeownship as a middle class ideal for white Americans guided policy making that purposefully created barriers between inner city and suburban movement through land valuations, mortgage policies, construction loans, and housing projects.

Jackson presents a compelling argument that the American suburb has developed along a trajectory different than other nations due to the availability of land and the idealization of the home as a middle class goal. His talents rest on the long view of suburbanization, not only as a recent phenomenon, but as an evolving process between citizen, city, and federal government. Kirk Johnson, Spring 2013 While acknowledging that "suburbs" of some kind are as old as civilization, 12 Jackson argues that American suburbanization began in 1815 and is fundamentally unique to the United States for a variety of reasons.

In this synthetic history, Jackson seeks to explain both why the American experience was so unique, and how it happened. Jackson places the beginning of suburbanization in 1815 because prior to that, all cities--dating back to the beginning of civilization--had been relatively small, compact, and crowded places for the very good reason that people needed to be within walking distance of where the worked, when they did not work where they lived.

At the same time, the Anglo-American disdain for cities combined with the desire of wealthier residents of large cities for separation from the crowded and often unhealthy conditions in places like New York City or Philadelphia led to development of a description of the sub urbanization which began in cities all across the nation first suburbs, which were isolated, and exclusively for the rich and their lower-class servants.

Later modes of transport would allow for a greater geographic spread, but there were other factors involved as well. The rise of the middle class ideal of the nuclear family with rigidly-defined gender roles helped legitimize the idea of moving families to the suburban fringes of the city, where the wife could maintain the sanctity of the domestic sphere in a ideally pastoral setting while the husband ventured out by steam railroad or electric trolley to the male preserve of the inner city.

This was a world view in which the lower class and non-whites had no place. Or, more honestly, they did have a place--in the crowded inner cities that the white middle class began to abandon once trains, trolleys, and the automobile made it possible to do so. Even as improved transportation made it possible to leave the city, changes in residential planing, home construction, and changes in state laws helped create the suburbs they fled to.

In the nineteenth century, it was common and relatively easy for cities to grow by annexing communities and rural areas, but by late in the century this was changing. It became easier for towns to incorporate, and once they did many began to resist being annexed by the cities they were ostensibly tied to.

Suburbs began to develop distinct identities, and to assert independence from cities and urban problems they represented.

Urbanization

This process is long, and the book covers a lot of ground--changes in transportation, building methods, state and federal law, larger socioeconomic changes, and the effect of important historic events.

The automobile gets a lot of attention later in the book, which is about the point where Jackson drops the pretense of neutrality and begins to wear his own feelings on his sleeve. He does not do so to an overbearing degree, and the book does not turn into a screed or polemic. Jackson does a good job of getting the reader to the point in the 1980s, right after many older American cities had essentially bottomed out, and some had begun to recover in some ways gentrification.

However, he notes that the infrastructure of American suburbs will not simply vanish if the process of suburbanization comes to a close, and any future developments will need to contend with the physical infrastructure that over a century and a half nearly two centuries, at this writing of suburbanization has deeded future generations.