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A summary of the life and works of charles robert darwin

  • Malthus Essay on the Principle of Population 1798;
  • The first was Journal of Researches, which was an account of his voyage.

Kent, England English naturalist In The Origin of Species the English naturalist Charles Darwin outlined the theory of natural selection, or "survival of the fittest," as the explanation for the changing of living beings over time. His father was a successful doctor, as was his grandfather, Erasmus Darwin, who had a great influence on Charles's later theories. His mother, who was the daughter of the famous pottery maker Josiah Wedgwood 1730—1795died when Charles was eight.

His sisters then raised him. He was not a very good student.

  • He soon gave up that idea also, but he continued to study;
  • Therefore Wallace's work and Darwin's theory were both presented to a scientific society called the Linnaean Society on 1 July 1858;
  • For much of that time he suffered from ill health;
  • Charles Darwin published 10 more books after 1859;
  • Henslow, professor of botany, and on graduation in 1831 was recommended by him for the post of naturalist in H.

In 1825 Darwin went to Edinburgh University in Scotland to study medicine, but he soon realized that he was unable to even watch an operation being performed. He soon gave up that idea also, but he continued to study. He attended John Stevens Henslow's course in botany the study of plantsstarted a collection of beetles that became famous, and read widely. He received his bachelor's degree in 1831. Voyage of the Beagle On Henslow's recommendation Darwin was offered the position of naturalist for the second voyage of H.

Beagle to survey the coast of South America.

Origin of Species

The Beagle left in December 1831 and returned in October 1836. During the voyage Darwin studied many different plants and animals and collected many specimens, concentrating on location and habits. Darwin was influenced in his Beagle studies by scientist Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology 1830—33which stated that present conditions and processes were clues to the Earth's past history.

Darwin noticed on the trip that certain types of organisms existed only in certain areas and that many organisms had gone through changes that made it easier for them to survive in certain environments. For example, he studied a type of bird called a finch and realized that there were over a dozen different kinds. The size and shape of the beaks of these birds differed depending on what kind of food was available in the area each lived in.

  1. During this time Darwin journeyed to Bathurst, making superficial observations on the geology of the Blue Mountains and collecting some native fauna and flora.
  2. They married on 29 January 1839.
  3. In 1825 Darwin went to Edinburgh University in Scotland to study medicine, but he soon realized that he was unable to even watch an operation being performed.
  4. Beagle Cambridge, 1933 N.
  5. In August his brother Erasmus dies, and is buried in Down churchyard.

Darwin's Journal of Researches was published in 1839. With the help of a government grant to cover the cost of the illustrations, the Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle was published in five volumes from 1839 to 1843. A number of scientists wrote articles on fossils the preserved remains of creatures from an earlier ageliving mammals, birds, fish, and reptiles.

Darwin edited the work. He contributed information on the habits and ranges of the animals and made notes on the fossils. He also published The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs 1842for he had studied the coral reefs in the Cocos Islands during the Beagle voyage.

Development of ideas on evolution In 1842 and 1844 Darwin wrote short accounts of his views on evolution change and improvement over time.

He decided to wait and do more research. Darwin studied the practices of pigeon breeders, he conducted experiments on differences in plants and animals over time, and he worried about the problem of plant and animal transport across land and water barriers—for he believed in the importance of isolation for the creation of new species.

Charles Darwin Biography

In May 1856 Lyell heard of Darwin's ideas and urged him to write an account with full references. Darwin sent a chapter to Lyell and Sir Joseph Hooker, who were deeply impressed. In June 1858, when Darwin was Charles Darwin. Lyell and Hooker arranged for a reading of a combined paper by Wallace and Darwin, and it was presented at a meeting of the Linnaean Society in London, England, on July 1.

The paper had little effect.

Australian Dictionary of Biography

His basic idea was that in the struggle to survive, some organisms adapt better than others to their surroundings, and when these survivors give birth they pass their traits on to their offspring, causing species to evolve. An English philosopher seeker of wisdom named Herbert Spencer created the phrase "survival of the fittest" to describe this idea. The publication of Darwin's book brought worldwide attention to his theory and created heated dispute. Darwin was aware of all the criticism he received and tried to answer it in the additional five editions of Origin that were produced during his lifetime.

In these editions he wanted to avoid trouble and wound up making several changes; this weakened his presentation and made him seem unsure of his views. The first edition is easily the best. It became hard to say what is "useless" in nature. With The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex 1871 Darwin caused another uproar by suggesting that humans and apes both could be traced to a common ancestor. Darwin became increasingly interested in plants, especially since he had his son Francis to help with the work.

Papers Darwin had published in 1864 were collected into The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants 1875and these ideas were further explained and published as The Power of Movement in Plants 1880. Darwin's last work returned to observations he had made in 1837: Darwin had married Emma Wedgwood, his first cousin, in 1839.

Four of their sons became prominent scientists. He died on April 19, 1882, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  • Ill health continues until spring 1866;
  • July his name appears in Stephens' Illustrations of British Entomology;
  • Leaves Edinburgh in April;
  • Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society;
  • Begins a lifelong relationship with the London publishing house of John Murray;
  • For much of that time he suffered from ill health.

For More Information Browne, Janet. The Power of Place.

  1. Darwin noticed on the trip that certain types of organisms existed only in certain areas and that many organisms had gone through changes that made it easier for them to survive in certain environments. The beagle then sailed to Mauritius and South Africa before sailing north into the Atlantic.
  2. Meets Captain Robert FitzRoy 1805-65 and makes preparations for the voyage. He called his notes The Transmutation of Species.
  3. In the last weeks of the year moves to a house in Gower Street, London.

The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. Darwin, His Daughter, and Human Evolution. Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

Charles Darwin