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An introduction to the chemistry of life atoms and thei interactions

The content and activity in this topic will work towards building an understanding of the structure of atoms and how elements are organized on the periodic table. Chemical Structures The properties of elements and compounds are determined by their structures. The simplest structural unit of an element is an atom.

Atoms are very small. A hundred million 100,000,000 hydrogen atoms put side-by-side is only as long as one centimeter! Some elements are monatomic, meaning they are made of a single mon- atom -atomic in their molecular form. Helium He, see Fig. Other elements contain two or more atoms in their molecular form Fig. Hydrogen H2oxygen O2and chlorine Cl2 molecules, for example, each contains two atoms.

Chapter 6 The Chemistry of Life. Atoms and their interactions.

Another form of oxygen, ozone O3has three atoms, and sulfur S8 has eight atoms. All elemental molecules are made of atoms of a single element. Molecules of compounds have atoms of two or more different elements. For example, water H2O has three atoms, two hydrogen H atoms and one oxygen O atom. Methane CH4a common greenhouse gas, has five atoms, one of carbon C and four of hydrogen H, see Fig.

Exploring Our Fluid Earth

The electrostatic forces that hold atoms together in molecules are the same type of forces that cause static electricity. Activity Determine how charged matter interacts. Electrostatic forces hold atoms together in molecules—like the two hydrogen atoms held together in H2 gas.

Electrostatic forces also hold electrons and protons together in the atom.

Atoms and Their Interactions

The attraction between negatively charged electrons and positively charged protons in an atom give the atom its structure. The strong force holds neutrons and protons together in the nucleus. This force got its name because it is strong enough to overcome the force of the positively charged protons repelling each other. The number of electrons and protons in an atom determines its chemical properties.

Chemical properties include the specific ways that atoms and molecules react and the energy that they release or use in these reactions.

How do chemistry and biology relate?

Size of Subatomic Particles One hundred million 100,000,000 hydrogen atoms put side-by-side equals about a centimeter. This means it would take about one hundred billion 100,000,000,000 protons or neutrons put side-by-side to equal a centimeter. This means that it would take one hundred trillion 100,000,000,000,000 electrons put side-by-side to equal a centimeter!

Neutral Atoms The subatomic particles in an atom determine the properties of the atom. Some atoms exist naturally as neutral, or uncharged, atoms. An uncharged atom is electrically neutral because electrons and protons have opposite charges of equal sizes.

Teaching Science as Inquiry (TSI)

When the number of protons and electrons in an atom are same, the charges cancel out, or counteract each other. Protons and Neutrons Every atom of a particular element has the same number of protons. The atomic number is equal to the number of protons in an element.

  1. Because of his and others work, we think of electrons both as particles of matter having mass is a property of matter and as units or quanta of energy.
  2. Chemical equations are linear representations of how these reactions occur.
  3. This arrangements of the atoms and their charges make water a polar molecule. The attraction between negatively charged electrons and positively charged protons in an atom give the atom its structure.
  4. Some elements are monatomic, meaning they are made of a single mon- atom -atomic in their molecular form.

On the periodic table, the atomic number is usually given as the whole number above the symbol for the element see Fig. For example, hydrogen H has an atomic number of one 1.

  1. One such reaction is diagrammed in Figure 13.
  2. The atomic mass also referred to as the atomic weight is the number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
  3. The strong force holds neutrons and protons together in the nucleus.

This means a hydrogen atom has one proton. If a hydrogen atom is neutral, it must also have one electron. An oxygen atom O has an atomic number of eight 8. This means a neutral oxygen atom has eight protons and eight electrons. The element Actium Ac has an atomic number of 89, so it has 89 protons and 89 electrons in a neutral atom.

The first three elements in the periodic table showing atomic numbers, atomic symbols, number of protons, number of electrons, number of neutrons, and atomic structure.