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An introduction to the nicotine replacement therapy

Originally developed as an antidepressant, early users reported that they had less urge to smoke, and further research demonstrated that it was useful as an aid to quitting. It is available an introduction to the nicotine replacement therapy on prescription, and one course per year is subsidised under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme on condition that users participate in a comprehensive counselling program such as with the Quitline service or their GP.

Since changes to the authority conditions in 2004, smokers wishing to use bupropion must visit a doctor for the initial 30-tablet prescription, and then make a second visit to receive the second prescription for the remaining 90 tablets. Other effects of overdose include lethargy, confusion and tremors.

The side effects of this medication include dry mouth, constipation, nausea, and sedation, and it can be dangerous in overdose. Like bupropion, the likelihood of quitting using nortriptyline appears to be similar to that for NRT, but lower than when using varenicline.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants for example, fluoxetinemonoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressants for example, selegilineand the antidepressant venlaxafine have not been shown to help smoking cessation, nor has the herbal therapy St John's wort, or S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine SAMea dietary supplement that is thought to have antidepressant properties.

An introduction to the nicotine replacement therapy

The active ingredient is varenicline tartrate. It also acts as an antagonist by blocking nicotine binding to specific receptors, which may reduce the rewarding effects of smoking and reduce reactivity to smoking cues.

These effects likely contribute to varenicline's efficacy as a pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. A 2016 Cochrane review concluded that varenicline increased the chances of successful long-term cessation between two- and three-times compared to attempts with no medication. It may also help to prevent relapse.

7.16.2 Bupropion and other anti-depressants

For every day that varenicline was taken, abstinence increased by an average of 6. Abstinence rates were comparable to those reported for varenicline-naive smokers.

Between 2006 and 2008 varenicline use rates increased from 0. The findings suggest that varenicline did not simply gain market share at the expense of other medications, but led to an increase in smokers using evidence-based treatment.

It recommends reducing alcohol consumption until the patient knows to what extent the medication affects their capacity to tolerate alcohol. However, the evidence was not conclusive in people with past or current psychiatric disorders. The production information now includes a warning that consuming alcohol may increase the risk of psychiatric symptoms, and aims to increase awareness that serious psychiatric symptoms have been reported in patients taking the drug. NRT combinations appear to be more effective than single type use.

Most of these combinations are yet to be approved but early trials have shown some promise. The authors did not find evidence that offering more intensive behavioural support was associated with larger treatment effects. It is also low-cost compared with many other pharmacotherapies, potentially making it more accessible to low income people and countries. A 2012 Cochrane review concluded that existing trials show little evidence for a specific effect of silver acetate in promoting smoking cessation, and any effect of this agent is likely to be smaller than NRT.

Rimonabant is used predominantly for treating obesity, but some thought it would also be useful for smoking cessation, particularly for smokers concerned about weight gain. The drug may also be useful for treating epithelial damage i. Evaluations have found that such programs increased the number of callers, in some cases quite dramatically, and most found that access to free NRT improved long-term quit rates.

Randomised controlled trials that enrol highly motivated smokers an introduction to the nicotine replacement therapy are carefully followed up and who receive higher intensity behavioural support than is usually provided may report higher cessation rates than would occur in general population use of the medications.

After adjusting for major confounding variables such as tobacco dependence, findings from population studies in An introduction to the nicotine replacement therapy support the efficacy of combined behavioural therapy and pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence treatment, thus supporting their use in the real world. One study found that positive medication expectancies in smokers may contribute to better treatment response, and the authors suggest that assessing treatment expectancies and attempting to maintain or improve them may be important for the delivery, evaluation, and targeting of smoking cessation treatments.

  1. The future of smoking cessation therapy in the United States. They argue that most tobacco users want to quit, there is little to no evidence supporting the utility of assessing readiness to quit, and an opt-out default is more ethical.
  2. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
  3. Treatment of nicotine addiction. What are the pros and cons of using nicotine replacement therapy to help you stop smoking nrts are reviewed in depth here.
  4. Present therapeutic options and pipeline developments.

Researchers suggest that inclusion of no-treatment control groups or use of active placebos may be warranted. Researchers have proposed that, because only a minority of tobacco users will say they are ready to quit at any given time, all tobacco users should be offered evidence-based care, without being screened for readiness as a precondition for receiving treatment.

They argue that most tobacco users want to quit, there is little to no evidence supporting the utility of assessing readiness to quit, and an opt-out default is more ethical. Last updated September 2018 References 1.

Efficacy of pharmacotherapies for short-term smoking abstinance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Harm Reduction Journal, 2009; 6: Pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence.

Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, 2009; 192: Effectiveness of smoking cessation therapies: BMC Public Health, 2006; 6: Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2008; 179 2: Findings from the 2006—2008 international tobacco control ITC four country survey. Gender differences in self-reported use, perceived efficacy, and interest in future use of nicotine-dependence treatments: Gender Medicine, 2009; 6 2: Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012; 11: Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee. March 2008 meeting, positive recommendations. Adherence to and reasons for premature discontinuation from stop-smoking medications: Data from the ITC four-country survey. The health consequences of smoking: A report of the Surgeon General. The future of smoking cessation therapy in the United States.

  1. One study found that positive medication expectancies in smokers may contribute to better treatment response, and the authors suggest that assessing treatment expectancies and attempting to maintain or improve them may be important for the delivery, evaluation, and targeting of smoking cessation treatments. Like bupropion, the likelihood of quitting using nortriptyline appears to be similar to that for NRT, but lower than when using varenicline.
  2. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 2005; 55 5. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 2011; 32 5.
  3. Nicotine patches appeared to be popular because they were discreet, easy to use, provided a prolonged effect, and had an established history. Introduction to vaping history voice some have even gone so far as to imply that who views it as a legitimate nicotine replacement therapy like.
  4. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Dispelling myths about nicotine replacement therapy h t t p.

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A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 2005; 55 5: Single-dose pharmacokinetics of nicotine when given with a novel mouth spray for nicotine replacement therapy.

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