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An overview of the bullying and the intentional harmful acts in the cyberbullying

This is the branch of law that deals with property rights, personal dignity and freedom from injury. A cyberbully may be engaged in defamation.

  1. Results and discussion The 25 articles analyzed by this study are presented in chronological order in Chart 1 , which shows the title, type of study as defined by the authors , sample and objective of each study. Texto Contexto Enferm 2008; 17 4.
  2. Furthermore, being bullied is also associated with depressive, apathetic, cyclothymic and volatile tendencies, sadness, low self-esteem, reduced ability to focus, self-discipline control , and capacity to confront and solve problems coping , and greater emotional fragility in adult life 51. Section 2 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees freedom of expression.
  3. Bullying victimization is associated with dysfunctional emotional traits and affective temperaments. Genebra e Londres, 2008.
  4. Consequences The signs of bullying among children and adolescents include headaches, abdominal pains, insomnia, nocturnal enuresis bedwetting , depression, anxiety, missing school, lower academic performance, self-aggression, thoughts of suicide and attempted suicide, missing belongings, bodily injury, torn or dirty clothing and aggressiveness. The witnesses did not do anything to help the victims, which suggests fear of retaliation from the bullies 29 , which is corroborated by article 23, which emphasizes that the majority of witnesses feel compassion for the victim and do not like to watch scenes of bullying, but do not defend the victims for fear of becoming victims themselves 52.

In general, defamation that appears temporarily as unrecorded speech or in a live broadcast is called slander, and defamation that appears permanently in a book or on a Web site is called libel.

To be libellous a statement must: In libel cases, the target can lay a suit against the person making the statement.

  • Interactions between girls tend to be most influenced by affection, bonds of friendship, emotions and feelings, while in boys it is affected by competition and achieving goals 28 , 41;
  • Gender differences According to articles 11, 12 and 22, boys are more likely to be bullied or involved in bullying than girls 27 , 30 , 31;
  • Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children 1 , 4 , 5.

A perpetrator may be creating an unsafe environment by making the target feel that she or he cannot go to school without facing violence, teasing or exclusion. Schools and workplaces are required to provide a safe environment for their students or employees, and must take any appropriate action to do so.

A school, therefore, might punish a student for online behaviour that is making it hard for other students to learn in a safe environment.

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In Ontario, the Safe Schools Act has been changed to specifically include online behaviour: A school or workplace that does not do everything it can to provide a safe environment can be sued by the target s.

Finally, a person is responsible for any consequences that he or she might reasonably have guessed would happen.

This branch of law determines which actions are crimes against the state. Harassment is a crime under the Criminal Code.

Cyberbullying and the Law

Harassment is when something a person says or does makes someone fear for his or her safety, or for the safety of others. Even if the perpetrator did not intend to frighten someone, she or he can be charged with harassment if the target feels threatened.

Defamatory libel is a crime under the Criminal Code. It is most often treated as a crime if the libellous statement is directed against a person in authority and could seriously harm his or her reputation.

Publishing intimate images without consent was added as an offence in 2015. Section 2 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees freedom of expression.

This was the result of a case where a woman who sued a former romantic partner for sharing without her permission a sexually explicit video she had sent him. It also gives judges or justices of the peace the power to issue protection orders that may keep a perpetrator from contacting the target or even using any digital communications.

It also provides examples of cyberbullying including impersonating someone online or sharing harmful content online.