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Environment oriented values the most important and the least important

Similarly, ethical value may be regarded as a subgroup of a broader field of philosophic value sometimes referred to as axiology.

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Ethical value denotes something's degree of importancewith the aim of determining what action or life is best to do, or at least attempt to describe the value of different actions. Similar concepts[ edit ] Ethical value is sometimes used synonymously with goodness. However, goodness has many other meanings and may be regarded as more ambiguous.

Personal versus cultural perspectives[ edit ] Personal values exist in relation to cultural values, either in agreement with or divergence from prevailing norms. A culture is a social system that shares a set of common values, in which such values permit social expectations and collective understandings of the good, beautiful and constructive. Without normative personal values, there would be no cultural reference against which to measure the virtue of individual values and so cultural identity would disintegrate.

Personal values[ edit ] Personal values provide an internal reference for what is good, beneficial, important, useful, beautiful, desirable and constructive. Values generate behaviour[ dubious — discuss ] [1] and influence the choices made by an individual.

Values may help common human problems for survival by comparative rankings of value, the results of which provide answers to questions of why people do what they do and in what order they choose to do them.

Recent research has thereby stressed the implicit nature of value communication. Individual cultures emphasize values which their members broadly share. Values of a society can often be identified by examining the level of honor and respect received by various groups and ideas.

In the United States of Americafor example, top-level professional athletes receive more respect measured in terms of monetary payment than university professors.

  • Another example is that certain voters taken from surveys [ citation needed ] in the United States would not willingly elect an atheist as president, suggesting that believing in a God is a generally shared value;
  • The soothsayer who specialises in it sets a pot of boiling oil, drops a stone into it and asks the suspects to attempt to retrieve the stone;
  • They comprise of those traditional carnivals that a people see as necessary for their meaningful survival.

Another example is that certain voters taken from surveys [ citation needed ] in the United States would not willingly elect an atheist as president, suggesting that believing in a God is a generally shared value. Values clarification differs from cognitive moral education: Value clarification consists of "helping people clarify what their lives are for and what is worth working for.

It encourages students to define their own values and to understand others' values. Norms provide rules for behavior in specific situations, while values identify what should be judged as good or evil. While norms are standards, patterns, rules and guides of expected behavior, values are abstract concepts of what is important and worthwhile.

Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm, but it reflects the value of patriotism.

  • This kind of political arrangement is observable in the Southern part of Nigeria;
  • In this way, African culture and values can be revaluated, their relevance established and sustained in order to give credence to authentic African identity.

Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative behaviors to manifest respect at a funeral. Different cultures represent values differently and to different levels of emphasis. Members take part in a culture even if each member's personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative values sanctioned in that culture. This reflects an individual's ability to synthesize and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple subcultures they belong to.

If a group member expresses a value that seriously conflicts with the group's norms, the group's authority may carry out various ways of encouraging conformity or stigmatizing the non-conforming behavior of that member. For example, imprisonment can result from conflict with social norms that the state has established as law.

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In the third instance, the expertise of member-driven international organizations and civil society depends on the incorporation of flexibility in the rules, to preserve the expression of identity in a globalized world. EU policies based on the notion of "cultural exception" can become juxtaposed with the policy of "cultural specificity" on the liberal Anglo-Saxon side.

Indeed, international law traditionally treats films as property and the content of television programs as a service. Parents in different cultures have different values. Many such cultures begin teaching babies to use sharp tools, including knives, before their first birthdays.

Luos of Kenya value education and pride which they call "nyadhi". Some of these are summarized below. Inglehart—Welzel cultural map of the world Ronald Inglehart and Christian Welzel have made a two-dimensional cultural map showing the cultural values of the countries of the world along two dimensions: The traditional versus secular-rational values reflect the transition from a religious understanding of the world to a dominance of science and bureaucracy.

The second dimension named survival values versus self-expression values represents the transition from industrial society to post-industrial society. Gelfand There is a long tradition of distinguishing between tight and loose cultures. Regality theory Studies in evolutionary psychology have led to similar findings. The so-called regality theory finds that war and other perceived collective dangers have a profound influence on both the psychology of individuals and on the social structure and cultural values.

A dangerous environment leads environment oriented values the most important and the least important a hierarchical, authoritarian, and warlike culture, while a safe and peaceful environment fosters an egalitarian and tolerant culture.

On the other hand, there are theories of the existence of absolute values, [15] which can also be termed noumenal values and not to be confused with mathematical absolute value.

An absolute value can be described as philosophically absolute and independent of individual and cultural views, as well as independent of whether it is known or apprehended or not. Ludwig Wittgenstein was pessimistic towards the idea that an elucidation would ever happen regarding the absolute values of actions or objects; "we can speak as much as we want about "life" and " its meaning ," and believe that what we say is important.

But these are no more than expressions and can never be facts, resulting from a tendency of the mind and not the heart or the will". An instrumental value is worth having as a means towards getting something else that is good e. An intrinsically valuable thing is worth for itself, not as a means to something else.

It is giving value intrinsic and extrinsic properties. An ethic good with instrumental value may be termed an ethic meanand an ethic good with intrinsic value may be termed an end-in-itself. An object may be both a mean and end-in-itself.

Summation[ edit ] Intrinsic and instrumental goods are not mutually exclusive categories. In these cases, the sum of instrumental specifically the all instrumental value and intrinsic value of an object may be used when putting that object in value systemswhich is a set of consistent values and measures.

Intensity[ edit ] The intensity of philosophic value is the degree it is generated or carried out, and may be regarded as the prevalence of the good, the object having the value.

  1. Let us have an example.
  2. The sense of personal shame and the disgrace the thief has brought on himself or herself, family, relations and friends would be enough to discourage even the most daring thief.
  3. That is why one can meaningfully talk about social, moral, religious, political, aesthetic and even economic values of a culture. The Importance of Values Diving a bit deeper on that, all of the above is driven by our values.
  4. This shows that values occupy a central place in a people's culture. For instance, it possesses the concept of a Supreme Being which is invisible and indigenous.
  5. There are differences on how easily one would build trust with someone.

For example, taking a fictional life-stance of accepting waffle-eating as being the end-in-itself, the intensity may be the speed that waffles are eaten, and is zero when no waffles are eaten, e. Still, each waffle that had been present would still have value, no matter if it was being eaten or not, independent on intensity.

  • They comprise of those traditional carnivals that a people see as necessary for their meaningful survival;
  • It is in this respect that we can see that even a people's technology is part of their culture;
  • The so-called regality theory finds that war and other perceived collective dangers have a profound influence on both the psychology of individuals and on the social structure and cultural values;
  • He witnesses the coronation of a king or chief, the annual yam festival, the annual dance and acrobatic displays of guilds and age groups or his relations in the activities.

Instrumental value conditionality in this case could be exampled by every waffle not present, making them less valued by being far away rather than easily accessible. In many life stances it is the product of value and intensity that is ultimately desirable, i. Maximizing lifestances have the highest possible intensity as an imperative.

Positive and negative value[ edit ] There may be a distinction between positive and negative philosophic or ethic value. While positive ethic value generally correlates with something that is pursued or maximized, negative ethic value correlates with something that is avoided or minimized.

  1. We humans have historically been masters at adapting to our environments.
  2. For instance, it possesses the concept of a Supreme Being which is invisible and indigenous. Conversely, a value system by itself is internally inconsistent if.
  3. Because of the demand for children, African women of old would just keep bearing children until perhaps nature intervened to halt further pregnancies. Ludwig Wittgenstein was pessimistic towards the idea that an elucidation would ever happen regarding the absolute values of actions or objects; "we can speak as much as we want about "life" and " its meaning ," and believe that what we say is important.
  4. The acquisition of culture is a result of the socialisation process.
  5. However, the desirability of yielding to change in the non-material culture depends on whether the people perceive the new mode of conduct to be better than what they were used to.

Protected value[ edit ] A protected value also sacred value is one that an individual is unwilling to trade off no matter what the benefits of doing so may be. For example, some people may be unwilling to kill another person, even if it means saving many others individuals. Protected values tend to be "intrinsically good", and most people can in fact imagine a scenario when trading off their most precious values would be necessary.

The protectedness implies that people are concerned with their participation in transactions rather than just the consequences of it. Value system[ edit ] A value system is a set of consistent values used for the purpose of ethical or ideological integrity. Consistency[ edit ] As a member of a society, group or community, an individual can hold both a personal value system and a communal value system at the same time.

Value (ethics)

In this case, the two value systems one personal and one communal are externally consistent provided they bear no contradictions or situational exceptions between them. A value system in its own right is internally consistent when its values do not contradict each other and its exceptions are or could be abstract enough to be used in all situations and consistently applied. Conversely, a value system by itself is internally inconsistent if: