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The role of women in twentieth century vietnam

Turley, "the role of women in traditional Vietnamese culture was determined [partly] by. During this time, Confucianism was the official ideology, the Chinese language was primarily spoken, and the Chinese occupation had enormous influence on literature and art creations.

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According to Peter C. Phanthat "the first three persons leading insurrections against China were women. Turner, in the 3rd century A. They were defeated in A. They established a bureaucracy that emphasized Confucianism, and they focused on educating Vietnam's ruling class with Chinese literature and ideas.

The Ly dynasty continued many of the political, social, and economic institutions that were imposed by the country's former Chinese rulers.

For example, only males of the noble class could attend school and become members of the civil service. The Vietnamese continued to fight against Chinese influence, but in 1407 the country was once again under Chinese Rule. They also wanted to bring more missionaries into the country. The Nguyen dynasty disliked French involvement in Vietnam, and executed several missionaries and Vietnamese coverts.

Women in Vietnam

This was particularly true in the upper-class, where marriage to a European male was seen as an opportunity for advancement. Often, this marriage was a temporary arrangement.

A Vietnamese women married a European man for a certain amount of time. Since objects like clothes, coins, or jewelry were given in exchange for sex, women could make a profit in this way. When their European husband left, the woman were often remarried. This was seen as a profitable arrangement for most parties.

In fact, Vietnamese nobles had "thought it no Shame or Disgrace to marry their daughters to English and Dutch Seamen, for the Time they were to stay in Tonquin, and often presented their Son in Law pretty hand- somely at their departure, especially if they left their Wives with Child. It was believed that "When [a trader] wants to depart he gives whatever is promised, and so they leave each other in friendship and she may then look for another man as she wishes in all propriety, without scandal.

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European religious leaders began blaming East Asian women for being prostitutes, and the temporary marriages came to be seen as shameful instead of honorable. They were labeled as "prostitutes" and assumed to be of the lower-classes. Historian Barbara Andaya said that although "well into the nineteenth century Europeans continued to take concubinesthe tendency to see concubines akin to prostitutes meant that the standing of the temporary wife had been fundamentally eroded. Following the nationalist military leadership of the Trung sisters, other women became heavily involved in non-communist nationalist movements, especially in the Vietnam Nationalist Party.

They timidly suggested that the woman be trained in certain trades 'in keeping with her femininity and not detrimental to her mission as a mother. This 'sacred mission' was in fact but domestic slavery, the drudgrey that was the lot of women in patriarchal families, which the feminists did not dare to oppose. And they hardly dared to mention this 'risky' question: These nationalist movements stressed the idea that women were oppressed under the French occupation and espoused the idea that liberation for women could only come through a nationalist revolution.

They recognized that gender equality was an issue that cut across social lines and could be used to build nationalist support. They served as nurses, guides, couriers, and propagandists.

Although they were not allowed in the regular army, they fought in militia and guerrilla units on the home front. The Revolution did not result in immediate empowerment, as only 10 of the 403 seats in the 1946 -1960 Nationalist Assemblies were occupied by women. It did spread feminist ideology, however.

  1. Vietnamese conduct rites in a variety of sacred spaces.
  2. Some have been positive, such as a general rise in the standard of living, but others have not, such as increased corruption, social inequality, regional tensions, and an HIV-AIDS epidemic.
  3. People of the same gender often maintain close proximity in social contexts.

The Vietminh were in the North, and the French and those who supported them were in the south. The North became a communist society, while the South was anti-communist and received support from the United The role of women in twentieth century vietnam.

Rising unrest in the South, because of religious and social intolerance by President Ngo Dinh Diem, created an opportunity for North Vietnam to try reclaiming the South. This led to a long and bloody conflict, in which American troops became very involved. In 1975, the Communist government was able to take over South Vietnam, despite the American bombing of Northern cities. This division did not remain for long, though, and the two sides were united in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976.

The paid maternity leave for government employees, which was extended from three to six months, was changed back to three months a few years after its passing. Vietnam was slowly extending greater rights to females. In 1949, the state of Vietnam was created during the first Indochina War, in which Vietnam attempted to gain independence from France. A move towards equality was evident in the original constitution of the 1949 Democratic Republic of Vietnam, which stated that "women are equal to men in all respects.

The 1959 Marriage and Family Law made further progress as it worked on ending systems of concubines, child marriage and forced marriage. Under the socialist regime, both male and female literacy increased.

They took roles such as village patrol guards, intelligence agents, propagandists, and military recruiters. Historically, women have become "active participants" in struggles to liberate their country from foreign occupation, from Chinese to French colonialists. This character and spirit of Vietnamese women were first exemplified by the conduct of the Trung sisters, one of the "first historical figures" in the history of Vietnam who revolted against Chinese control.

North Vietnamese women were enlisted and fought in the combat zone and provided manual labor to keep the Ho Chi Minh trail open. They also worked in the rice fields in North Vietnam and Viet Cong-held farming areas in South Vietnam's Mekong Delta region to provide food for their families and the communist war effort.

Some women also served for the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong intelligence services. Some, like in the WAFC, fought in combat with other soldiers.

Others have served as nurses and doctors in the battlefield and in military hospitals, or served in South Vietnam or America's intelligence agencies. During the Sino-Vietnamese War Vietnamese women were used for propaganda images on both sides, as the Vietnamese released pictures of Vietnamese women militia with captured Chinese male troops while the Chinese released pictures of injured Vietnamese women prisoners being treated well by Chinese.

The Chinese held 1,636 Vietnamese prisoners and the Vietnamese held 238 Chinese prisoners; they were exchanged in May—June 1979. After surrendering, they were transferred by the Vietnamese soldiers to a prison. The Chinese prisoners reported that they were subjected to torturous and inhuman treatment, such as being blindfolded and having their bodies bound and restrained with metal wire.

Vietnamese women soldiers made up one-third of the guards who held the Chinese male prisoners captive in the prison.

The revolutionary socialist government in the North wanted to enhance social equity, sometimes by improving women's rights.

The 1960 Marriage and Family Law, for example, banned forced marriage, child marriage, wife beating, and concubinage. They did this for the purpose of industrial development. They promoted the power of the Women's Union, which pushed for women's rights but also rallied support for the Communist government's new laws. The government of North Vietnam influenced the role of women during the war of reunification during the mid-1960s, when mobilizing women was viewed as crucial to winning the war.

During this time, the Women's Union encouraged women to fulfill three main responsibilities. Most of these quotas were filled by the 1970s. They passed this resolution because, with so many Vietnamese men away at war, they needed more women to support the economy. When the war ended, female involvement decreased, actually sinking below its pre-war involvement rates.

The Family Law of 1986 doubled the length of maternity leave from three to six months, while the 1988 Council of Minster's Decision number 163 gave the Women's Union the right to be involved in any decision relevant to the welfare of women or children. However, the desire for economic efficiency under the free market reforms of the new regime caused some of these reforms to be scaled back. Maternity leave, for example, was shortened to four months the role of women in twentieth century vietnam employers began complaining that they lost money by hiring women.

There are no other organizations like the Women's Union, as the Vietnamese government is very careful about the nongovernmental organizations they allow to exist. The Vietnamese Women's Association exists largely to increase the power of the Communist Party, so it is not always able to fully support women's interests. The reunification of North and South Vietnam after the Vietnam War, in 1976, also allowed women to take on leadership roles in politics.

The new state implemented free market economics but political participation was not expanded.

  • Historian Barbara Andaya said that although "well into the nineteenth century Europeans continued to take concubines , the tendency to see concubines akin to prostitutes meant that the standing of the temporary wife had been fundamentally eroded;
  • Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations The international nongovernmental organization presence is significant, ranging from various organizations of the United Nations that conduct a wide variety of projects across the country, to small groups that work in only one community;
  • Its greatest concern has been unrest in rural areas brought on by official malfeasance and land disputes;
  • The most prominent contemporary symbols of social stratification are consumer goods;
  • The general moral message is for children to learn to "respect order" ton ti trat tu , a reference to knowing their inferior position in society and showing deference to their superiors.

The tight political atmosphere and resource-constraints weakened the Vietnam Women's Union, which was accustomed to speaking on behalf of women under Vietnam's single-party rule. After the war was over, it was no longer seen as a crucial organization by the government. There was also an increase in occupational segregation as women returned to more roles within the home and men returned from the war.

Women's participation in the economy, government, and society has increased. Traditional Confucian patriarchal values have continued to persist, as well as a continued emphasis on the family unit. This has comprised the main criticism of Vietnam Women's Union, an organization that works towards advancing women's rights.

Instead of being involved in their society, women worked as trade intermediaries and were expected to marry and become housewives. A common belief was that after the mid-twenties, women were considered undesirable and marriage was a way of life.

  • Most of these quotas were filled by the 1970s;
  • In 1882 it invaded northern Vietnam and forced the Vietnamese Emperor to accept the establishment of a French protectorate over central and northern Vietnam in 1883;
  • A seminal event in the solidification of Vietnamese identity occurred in 42 B.

The cap for marriage was at this age because after this time, women could no longer bare children, a necessity for the survival of the family name.

In addition, the notion of "a one-person, self-sufficient household was not very acceptable" [46] and was looked at as selfish and lonely. They were happy with their decision to opt out of a possible "miserable" life with a husband.

From a young age, the eldest child of a Vietnamese family had a variety of obligations to uphold. One of which was having to care for their younger siblings. During time of war, it was difficult for the parents to overlook agricultural labor while taking care of all their children.

Because of this obligation, women rejected offerings of marriage. After the war, women continued to help around the household and replaced the men they lost in combat. Although many still had proposals for marriage, they believed that it was fate that they had been single for that long and that they were meant for singlehood.

The gender imbalance that followed the Vietnam War was also a cause in the rise of single women. It was hard for them because men living in rural areas were hesitant to marry them. In addition, those who work at state farms and forestry stations were stationed in remote areas.

This limited women from socializing with the opposite sex. Studies have shown there are marriage discrepancies between rural and urban areas in Vietnam today. According to Nguyen et al. The cultural differences between northern and southern Vietnam include "marriage rituals, family living arrangement, household composition, and premarital sexual behaviors" according to a study by Teerawichitchainan et al.

Household chores and labor are still primarily performed by Vietnamese women; however, women in Vietnam have shown increased influence in familial decisions, such as household budgets and the education of the children.