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A biography of anne frank a girl killed during the holocaust

Special details have been included to highlight the twenty-five month period during which Anne and her family hid in the Secret Annex, as well as the aftermath. The study questions for students are arranged in three parts.

The second set of questions examines the relationship of Anne to the world outside the Annex. The final set of questions considers the ongoing issues that Anne raised in her diary over fifty years ago.

  1. It was established by the Dutch government that both Anne and Margot died in a typhus epidemic in March 1945, only weeks before the liberation of Bergen-Belsen, but scholars in 2015 revealed new research, including analysis of archival data and first-person accounts, indicating that the sisters might have perished in February 1945.
  2. Camps where prisoners were used as slave labor. On July 6, 1942, her family was forced to go into hiding.
  3. In the meantime, I must hold on to my ideals. State-sponsored pogrom in Germany and Austria, looting and destroying synagogues and Jewish owned-businesses.
  4. Why did Anne think she could confide more in her diary than in people?
  5. Why do so many of them deny their own heroism?

Her perspective resonates with the feelings and attitudes of teenagers in the post-Holocaust generation. More than fifty years later, this diary has become one of the best-known memoirs of the Holocaust. When Anne received her diary, she and her family were living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, which was occupied by the German Army.

Anne Frank Biography

On July 6, 1942, her family was forced to go into hiding. Although they could take very few things with them, Anne brought her diary to her new home, which she called the "Secret Annex.

She wrote about her life with the seven other people in hiding—her parents, her sister, the van Pels family called van Daan by Anneand Fritz Pfeffer called Alfred Dussel by Anneas well as the war going on around her and her hopes for the future. As a result of a radio broadcast made by the Dutch government in exile asking people to save their wartime diaries for publication after the war, Anne decided to rewrite her diary entries.

Anne Frank

On August 4, 1944, the Nazis raided the Secret Annex and arrested the residents. Tragically, Anne Frank did not survive the Holocaust. Her father, Otto Frank, returned to Amsterdam after the war ended, the sole survivor among those who had hid in the Secret Annex. He decided to publish the diary so that readers would learn about the effects of the Nazi dictatorship and its process of dehumanization. He was told that no one wanted to read about the Holocaust.

In June 1947 Contact published 1,500 copies of the first Dutch edition of the diary.

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Within years the Contact edition was translated into German, French, and English. Today this version is available in fifty-five languages, and over 24 million copies have been sold. Otto Frank quite deliberately excluded sections where Anne expressed negative feelings about her mother and others in the Annex, believing that Anne would not have wanted such views made public. Scholars associated with RIOD were particularly interested in refuting the accusations by neo-Nazi Holocaust deniers that the diary was a hoax.

To establish its validity, RIOD performed tests on the paper, ink, and glue used in the diary, proving that it was written during the 1940s.

TEACHING GUIDE

This edition is often used as the scholarly, research-oriented version of the diary and contains all of the entries that Otto Frank and the Contact Publishers had removed from the original 1947 edition. Entries that Anne rewrote after March 1944 are placed next to the original entries to show her development as a writer. The 1986 edition also includes transcripts of the tests verifying the authenticity of the diary, as well as some of the short stories and sketches written in the annex.

This edition, based on a new English translation of the original Dutch text, contains entries that both Otto Frank and Contact Publishers omitted from the 1947 edition.

By restoring sections from the original diary, the 1995 edition makes readers aware of the complexity and sensitivity of Anne Frank, an adolescent struggling to find her own identity amid turbulent and uncertain times.

Anne and her older sister, Margot, were raised in Germany in an atmosphere of tolerance; the Franks had friends of many faiths and nationalities. However, the circumstances of the early 1930s dramatically altered the situation for the Frank family.

The Nazis blamed the Jews for the economic, political, and social hardships that had befallen Germany, though less than 1 percent of the German population was Jewish.

Many German Jews felt this to be a passing phenomenon, while others, including the Frank family, decided to leave Germany altogether. The Franks decided to move to Amsterdam, the Netherlands, which had been known for centuries as a safe haven for religious minorities. By the mid-1930s the Franks were settling into a normal routine in their apartment at 37 Merwedeplein: In 1938 Otto expanded his business, going into partnership with the spice merchant Hermann van Pels, also a Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany.

In the first years of the occupation, Anne and Margot continued to socialize with their friends and attend school. But the Nazi administration, in conjunction with the Dutch Nazi Party and civil service, began issuing anti-Jewish decrees.

As Anne wrote on June 20, 1942: Our freedom was severely restricted by a series of anti-Jewish decrees: Jews were required to wear a yellow star; Jews were required to turn in their bicycles; Jews were forbidden to use streetcars; Jews were forbidden to ride in cars, even their own; Jews were required to do a biography of anne frank a girl killed during the holocaust shopping between 3 and 5 p.

All Jews had to register their businesses and, later, surrender them to non-Jews. Fortunately, Otto Frank, in anticipation of this decree, had already turned his business over to his non-Jewish colleagues Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman.

  • The Diary of a Young Girl;
  • The Nazi radical, right-wing, anti-Semitic political party headed by Adolf Hitler from 1921 to 1945;
  • During the winter of 1944-45 Hanneli and Anne met at the camp, on either side of a fence, three times;
  • The study questions for students are arranged in three parts;
  • They also lived in fear of break-ins, which became common during the occupation.

By 1942 mass arrests of Jews and mandatory service in German work camps were becoming routine. Fearful for their lives, the Frank family began to prepare to go into hiding. In addition, people on the office staff at the Dutch Opekta Company had agreed to help them. Frank also made arrangements for his business partner, Hermann van Pels, along with his wife, Auguste, and their son, Peter, to share the Prinsengracht hideaway.

While these preparations were secretly under way, Anne celebrated her thirteenth birthday on June 12, 1942. On July 5, 1942, her sister, Margot, received a call-up notice to be deported to a "work camp. Margot told me that the call-up was not for Father, but for her. At this second shock, I began to cry. Margot is sixteen—apparently they want to send girls her age away on their own.

Hiding…where would we hide? They hurriedly packed their belongings and left notes implying that they had left the country. On the evening of July 6, they moved into their hiding place. A week later, on July 13, the van Pels family joined the Franks. On November 16, 1942, the seven residents of the Secret Annex were joined by its eighth and final resident, Fritz Pfeffer. For two years the Franks were part of an extended family in the Annex, sharing a confined space and living under constant dread of detection and arrest by the Nazis and their Dutch sympathizers.

The Diary of a Young Girl Teacher’s Guide

They also lived in fear of break-ins, which became common during the occupation. Their only link to the outside world was through their helpers and radio broadcasts from the BBC. For Anne, the normal stresses of changing from a child to a teenager to a young woman were heightened by the confined space. She recorded all of this in her diary.

Part of her entry for Friday, December 24, 1943, reads: Whenever someone comes in from outside, with the wind in their clothes and the cold on their cheeks, I feel like burying my head under the blankets to keep from thinking, "When will we be allowed to breathe fresh air again? At approximately 10 a. A Nazi policeman and several Dutch collaborators appeared at 263 Prinsengracht, having received an anonymous phone call about Jews hiding there, and charged straight for the bookcase leading to the Secret Annex.

Karl Josef Silberbauer, an Austrian Nazi, forced the residents to turn over all valuables. When he found out that Otto Frank had been a lieutenant in the German Army during World War I, he treated the family with a little more respect. The residents were taken from the house, forced onto a covered truck, taken to the Central Office for Jewish Emigration, and then to Weteringschans Prison.

Two of the helpers, Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman, were also imprisoned, for their role in hiding the prisoners.

  • Jews were required to wear a yellow star; Jews were required to turn in their bicycles; Jews were forbidden to use streetcars; Jews were forbidden to ride in cars, even their own; Jews were required to do their shopping between 3 and 5 p;
  • Yale University Press, 1991.

Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl were not arrested, although Miep was brought in for questioning by the police. The Nazi and Dutch police left the Secret Annex a mess.

The floor was strewn with clothing, paperwork, and other belongings of those who had been hiding there. Miep brought the diary downstairs, where she kept it hidden in her desk. About a week later the Nazis emptied out the entire Annex.

On August 8, 1944, after a brief stay in Weteringschans Prison, the residents of the Secret Annex were moved to Westerbork transit camp. They remained there for nearly a month, until September 3, when they were transported to the Auschwitz death camp in Poland. Ironically, it was the last Auschwitz-bound transport ever to leave Westerbork. Upon arrival at Auschwitz, the men were separated from the women.

  1. Their only link to the outside world was through their helpers and radio broadcasts from the BBC.
  2. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow feel that everything will change for the better, that this cruelty too shall end, that peace and tranquility will return once more. Anne sensed the danger for Jews, although she was not aware of the full magnitude of mass murder occurring hundreds of miles to the east.
  3. I hope so, oh, I hope so very much, because writing allows me to record everything, all my thoughts, ideals and fantasies. Judges from the Allied Powers, including Great Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union, heard evidence against twenty-two Nazi criminals for "crimes against peace" and "war crimes," which violated the laws and customs of warfare, and "crimes against humanity.
  4. Was it the leaders?
  5. Gies, Miep, and Alison Leslie Gold.

Hermann van Pels was the first to die. He was soon murdered in the gas chambers. Fritz Pfeffer was moved to Neuengamme concentration camp in Germany probably via Sachsenhausen or Buchenwaldwhere he died on December 20, 1944.

In October 1944 Anne, Margot, and Mrs. Thousands died from planned starvation and epidemics at Bergen-Belsen, which was without food, heat, medicine, or elementary sanitary conditions.

Anne and Margot, already debilitated, contracted typhus and grew ever sicker. Both Anne, fifteen years old, and Margot, nineteen years old, died in March, 1945.

Her son Peter was sent from Auschwitz on a death march. He survived the march but died in Mauthausen in Austria, on May 5, 1945, a few days before the camp was liberated.

Otto Frank, the only resident of the annex to survive the Holocaust, returned to Amsterdam after the war. He was totally unaware of the deaths of his daughters. He searched all possible leads to locate them before learning from a woman who had been with the sisters in the barracks at Bergen-Belsen that they had died. Otto also discovered that his wife, the van Pels family, and Fritz Pfeffer had all died in the Holocaust.

Fortunately, all of the helpers managed to survive the war. Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler had been sent to the Amersfoort police transit camp, and sentenced, without trial, to forced labor. Kleiman fell ill during this time and was sent home; he lived in Amsterdam until his death in 1959. Kugler escaped during an air raid and made his way back to Amsterdam; he emigrated to Canada in 1955 and died there in 1989. Bep Voskuijl died in Amsterdam on May 6, 1983.

Miep and Jan Gies remained in Amsterdam, raising a son. Jan died on January 26, 1993. Otto Frank found it difficult to settle permanently in Amsterdam with its constant reminders of his lost family. He and his second wife, Elfriede Geiringer, also an Auschwitz survivor, moved to Basel, Switzerland, in 1953.