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A look at some unique architectures in france england and the united states

The origin design by William Thornton called for a large neoclassical building with large wings and a dominant dome. When still uncompleted it was burned by the British in 1814. Latrobe was hired to restore it, and in doing so reworked it, especially inside. Each group of immigrants brought with them the style and building practices of their mother country, adapting it to the conditions of their new homeland, as exemplified by the North European medieval Gothic design for village houses and barns.

In all, there were about seven basic colonial designs, including: The French also introduced the so-called Quebec style to their settlements around the Great Lakes and the Mississippi region.

Down in the deep south, another distinctive French building style was prevalent in Louisiana and its capital New Orleans. Georgian Architecture in America c.

  • Whistler 1834-1903 also lived in England;
  • The design declined from about 1873 onwards, before evolving into the Queen Anne style in the 1890s;
  • One was Louis Sullivan 1856-1924;
  • Pei 1917- experimented with many interesting design concepts;
  • Although some sculptors of the period worked in the abstract style, most still dealt with recognizable subject matter.

American Georgian architecture encompassed three distinct styles: See below for more details. Examples of Georgian architecture in America include: Neoclassical Architecture in America c.

Both were modelled on the architectural principles invented and perfected by ancient Greek and Roman civilizationwhich were deemed to be the most appropriate models for the fledgling democracy of the United States. Federal Style of Neoclassicism The term 'Federal-style architecture' describes a loose classicist style which flourished up to 1815.

It is characterized by the addition of new antique features - including Greek and Byzantine elements - to the symmetrical Georgian style.

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Other characteristics included bright interiors with large windows, and a decorative but restrained appearance. Notable American architects who produced Federal Style designs included: Examples of Federal architecture in America include: Greek Revival Style of Neoclassicism Revivalist Greek architecture involved closer adherence to the values and stylistic models of Greek art c.

The widespread use of neoclassicism in American as well as French architecture, contributed to an association between Neoclassicism and republicanism, which flourished until the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte. Conversely, the 19th century Gothic Revival can be interpreted as a monachist or conservative reaction to neoclassical republicanism.

Late 19th century Neoclassical architecture was an expression of the American Renaissance movement c. Thomas Jefferson 1743-1826the third President of the United States 1801-9 was also a fine architect.

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Among his architectural masterpieces was the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond 1785-96. In his design of this prototype of the American public building, Jefferson used simplifications of French Neoclassicism, replacing the original Corinthian style with the more sober Ionic order, a symbolic reference to the spirit of the ancient republics.

In this building he gave a clear indication of the architectural signals the young American republic intended to send. Based on the central-plan buildings of the Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio 1508-80filtered through Jefferson's interpretation of English country homes, Monticello is a monumental and elegant building.

Its classical white portico with four Tuscan columns stands out sharply against the red fabric of brickwork of which the entire building is composed. A dome on the top of an octagonal drum indicates the heart of the building, an ample central hall illuminated from above by circular windows. Benjamin Latrobe 1764-1820trained in England by the innovative architect Samuel Pepys Cockerell, was a leading exponent of the Greek revival style of Neoclassical architecture, and was a strong advocate of stylistic purity.

It was an austere building modelled on a Greek Ionic temple with porticoes around a central domed space. Latrobe's creativity extended to the smallest details of such buildings; to give one example, in presenting Corinthian capitals he replaced the classical acanthus leaves with the more American tobacco or corn leaves.

He also completed a number of houses, including: Modelled on the Greek Corinthian order, the most ornate Greek style complete with slender columns decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls, its exterior is made entirely out of marble.

The Statue of Freedom was erected on the top of the dome in 1863. Strickland designed Philadelphia's Merchants' Exchange 1832-34complete with an impressive lantern modelled on the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens, Greece.

Robert Mills designed the Patent Office and the Treasury 1836-42 in Washington DC, as well as the Washington Monument in Baltimore 1815-29which was based on a massive Doric column, the first such structure in America.

Thomas Walter collaborated on the U. Capitol building and was responsible for the elegant Corinthian temple design of Girard College 1833-47. Countless other public buildings across the United States continued to be modelled on Greco-Roman prototypes, well into the 20th century. Davis was one of the foremost architects of the Greek-temple house, a design exemplified by the Bowers House 1825-26 in Northampton, Massachusetts.

Strongly influenced also by Renaissance arthe specialized in designing luxurious homes a look at some unique architectures in france england and the united states wealthy clients like the Astors and the Vanderbilts, such as The Breakers, an opulent neo-Renaissance mansion built in Newport, 1892-95 for Cornelius Vanderbilt II. Hunt was also one of the founders of the American Institute of Architects, and was elected its president in 1888.

The firm produced a stream of classical buildings to rival anything seen since the heyday of Roman art and engineering. Standing approximately 555 feet 169 metres tall, it was finished in 1884 and opened to the public in 1888.

The thirty-six columns were intended to represent the 36 states in the Union, at the time of Lincoln's death. Eggers and Daniel P. Higgins, and inspired by the Pantheon in Rome, the monument features a unique round dome, a circular colonnade, and Corinthian order. Gothic Revival Architecture in America c. Based on principles of medieval Gothic architecture 1150-1375the first recorded Gothic style building in America - a mansion called Sedgeley - was built in 1798 by the Neoclassical architect Benjamin Latrobe on the outskirts of Philadelphia.

The first Gothic Revival church was St. However, it wasn't until the 1830s when a series of simple granite churches were built across Boston First Methodist Episcopal Church in Temple Street that we see signs of a tangible Gothic Revival movement. Compare these ecclesistical buildings with the series of intricately carved Gothic-style timber churches St. Peter's at Waterford erected at a look at some unique architectures in france england and the united states the same time in Pennsylvania.

Gothic Art and Gothic Sculpture. The innovative architect of the next phase of the Gothic Revival was Richard Upjohn 1802-78 who was noted for his red sandstone church architecture, based on European 16th-century forms. Trinity Church 1839-46 in New York City, was his first major success, and was followed by numerous other churches, whose uninspiring exteriors were more than compensated for by the beautiful timber arcading and trussing of their interiors: Indeed, in terms of numbers, this type of domestic architecture was the main occupation of Gothic Revival during the mid-19th century.

Developments included the first Gothic style plantation mansion Belmead, Powhatan County, Virginia, 1845designed by Alexander Jackson Davis, as well as the latter's castellated Gothic and cottage designs. Meanwhile, Davis's friend, the architectural critic and theorist Andrew Jackson Downing 1815-52 favoured a return to Medieval detail: In 1841 he published his seminal work "A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening Adapted to North America", which contained a long section on rural architecture.

This, together with "The Architecture of Country Houses" 1850 and his essays in "The Horticulturalist" which he edited since its inception in 1846, established Downing as the arbiter of good design, at least until his untimely death in a steamboat explosion.

Buildings have high roofs with steep slopes and decorated gables. It was often employed in the building of train stations and schools, as well as private houses. The most decorative variants of the "Stick Style" are often referred to as Eastlake.

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An example of a "Stick Style" design is John N. The design declined from about 1873 onwards, before evolving into the Queen Anne style in the 1890s.

The Queen Anne Style had several features in common with the "Stick Style", such as overlapping roof planes, wrap-around porches, and decorative gable peaks. Late Gothic Revival 1860 onwards Influenced by early Victorian architecturea more serious period of Gothic Revival movement began in 1860, following the construction of St. Patrick's design was a wonderful fusion of elements from Notre Dame Cathedral in Reims France and Cologne Cathedral Germanyand was built from materials lighter than stone permitting a switch from flying buttresses to exterior buttresses.

However, Renwick's preference for Continental prototypes see for example restorations by the French architect Viollet-le-Duc was in marked contrast to many other architects of the period, who used English models, in conjunction with the recommendations of the eminent art critic John Ruskin 1819-1900. An example of the latter is the Alumni Hall, Union College, Schenectady, designed in 1858 and completed in 1875, by Upjohn's pupil Edward Potter 1831-1904.

Wight; and the more refined St. Other exponents of "collegiate Gothic" were Richard Morris Hunt, who produced the architectural designwork for the Yale Divinity School 1869and Russell Sturgis 1836-1909Wight's partner, who was the architect of a number of halls at Yale University during the period 1869-85.

Other building designers from this particular phase of Gothic Revival architecture include John H. Richardson 1838-86who used Romanesque designs as a basis for his distinctive personal style of Gothic: As with Neoclassicism, the Gothic Revival movement lasted well into the 20th century, thanks to designers like Ralph Adams Cram 1863-1942 and his partners, Bertram G.

Goodhue 1869-1924 and Frank W. Ferguson, who considered the style as being especially appropriate for college and university buildings. Second Empire Architecture c. The most obvious characteristic of Second Empire design is the mansard roof - named after Francois Mansart sic 1598-1666 - one of the architectural features of the reign of Louis XIV, which had returned to fashion in mid-19th century Paris.

Second Empire architecture was also characterized by dormer windows, square towers a look at some unique architectures in france england and the united states paired columns to enhance height. Famous Second Empire buildings in America include: The Chicago School 1870-1920 In 1871, in one of the worst disasters in US history, the city of Chicago - then constructed almost exclusively of wood - was destroyed almost entirely by a great fire.

The rebuilding of the city in stone and steel marked a revolutionary turning point in the history of architecture: In fact, the a look at some unique architectures in france england and the united states office building had already been made necessary in America by the high density of banks, offices, railroad terminals, and warehouses in small-size sections of growing cities.

And following the invention of the safety elevator by Elisha Otis in 1853, pushing skywards was the only feasible option to maximize space and rental income. In addition, such buildings would provide mutual proximity for businesses to expedite communications, as well as a visible prestigious commercial emblem. The first 'skyscrapers' were designed by traditionalist architects, and offered a huge challenge to regular methods of masonry construction.

The Chicago School of architecture refers to the innovations worked out by the architects and engineers involved in the city's reconstruction. They faced certain very specific problems: He proposed a new, multistorey building - the skyscraper - in which vertical height, made possible by the invention of the elevator, increased exponentially the use of the building lot.

The structure was made technically possible thanks to the use of a metal skeleton framework. For the Home Insurance Company Building 1884-5for instance, Jenney designed a metal skeleton of cast-iron columns - wrapped in masonry - and wrought-iron beams, which carried the masonry walls and windows at each floor level.

Compare Jenney's use of wrought-iron with that used in the design of the Eiffel Tower 1887-89 by Gustave Eiffel 1832-1923. Soon many architects were actively involved in the drive to establish a building model suitable for the evolution of the tall commercial building. Among the most important members of the Chicago school were Dankmar Adler 1844-1900 and Louis Sullivan 1856-1924and they soon became the leaders; in twelve years of activity they made numerous buildings in which the technical-constructive and typological demands were placed side by side with the constant effort to elaborate decorative and structural elements in a new language.

Advances in industrial technologies and the use of steel frameworks allowed Sullivan to make the first skyscrapers in which the supporting skeleton was left visible; even so, he did not eliminate the decorations, which he used to emphasize the vertical-support elements, the entrances, and the outline of the lower floors of these otherwise spare and rational buildings.

Sullivan also worked out a method for designing skyscrapers by dividing them into three functional areas: