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A research on the effects of plant hormones on pea plant germination and growth

How to cite this article: Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 5: Pea Pisum sativum L. Though several well-tested and proven technologies to enhance the productivity of the crops are available, nutritional security continues to be a cause of concern for many developing countries.

It is a paramount need to increase the productivity to feed hungry millions.

  • Effect of chlormequat on plant height, disease development and chemical constituents of cultivars of barley, oat and wheat;
  • The applications of GAs on growth of various plants have been reported by Sarma and Deka 1977 , Xu et al;
  • Azad-P-1, respectively recording seed index 23;
  • In V1, dry weight per seed increased up to 45 DAA and then stabilized at later stages.

One of the most recent developments in the field of agriculture in boosting up crop production is the use of growth regulators. The applications of GAs on growth of various plants have been reported by Sarma and Deka 1977Xu et al. Several studies on different crops have shown that the exogenous application of GA3, an important GAs can enhance the productivity of crops affecting the vital physiological processes Khan et al.

Cycocel is a synthetic growth retarding chemicals extensively used for dwarfing of plants or plant parts Clark and Fedac, 1977; Sarma and Mishra, 1979; Bora and Sarma, 2004.

Increasing Cycocel concentration increased yield of gobhi sarson Grewal et al. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of GA3 and cycocel on growth, yield and protein content of pea in two varieties namely cv. A suitable plot was selected and ploughed till desired tilth was obtained. Farmyard manure was mixed properly at the rate of 10 tons ha-1.

NPK was used at recommended doses urea at the rate of 45 kg ha-1, super phosphate at the rate of 245 kg ha-1 applied during ploughing and pH was adjusted at 6 with lime.

Then the plot was divided into three blocks each containing 11 beds of 1. Certified seeds of pea Pisum sativum L.

Seeds were sown in mid of October and harvested in last of January.

  1. The maximum rate of pod DMA was 28. Percent of protein was determined from harvested seeds Lowry et al.
  2. Overlap between these phases was observed in both the varieties studied Figures 1 and 2.
  3. Cycocyl has been used to check the abscission of flower and modify the crop canopy for improving the yield in gram Bangal et al. Hormones are usually found in very small concentrations, but boy to they pack a punch!
  4. Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, pp. The maximum WAR was 77.
  5. Length of shoots was recorded at an interval of 3 days for 5 times and number of branches was counted at an interval of 7 days for 3 times. No other plant hormone is gaseous!

The seeds were first surface sterilised with 0. The seeds were soaked in specific concentrations of plant growth regulators separately for 12 h. Then seeds were air-dried for one hour and sown in the experimental beds. Thirty seeds were sown per bed, in lines 30 cm apart from line to line at a distance of 10 cm between seeds. Length of shoots was recorded at an interval of 3 days for 5 times and number of branches was counted at an interval of 7 days for 3 times. Random samples were taken from thrashed seeds for determining 100 seed weight seed index Bora and Sarma, 2003.

Percent of protein was determined from harvested seeds Lowry et al. Data collected were analysed statistically Panse et al. Data recorded on growth parameters of pea cv. Aparna and Azad-P-1 revealed that GA3 enhanced the shoot growth and cycocel reduced the shoot growth at all the concentrations tried. The response to the PGRs varied according to the varieties.

Understanding Plant Hormones

Aparna, the maximum shoot length 73. Azad-P-1, maximum shoot length 68. The process plant growth consists of two steps, cell divisions and subsequent cell elongation. GA3 has been reported to increases cell wall extensibility leading to elongation growth Matsukura et al. The increase in plant height due to GA3 application might be due to its effect on elongation of internodes Krishnamoorthy, 1981. Huttly and Phillips 1995 suggested that GA3 causes increase in cell number and size to produce a significant effect on growth.

The application of gibberellins promote shoot elongation was also reported by Xu et al. Mean length of shoots cm of pea cv. Effect of GA3 on number of branches of pea cv. Effect of cycocel on number of branches of pea cv. On the other hand cycocel, irrespective of concentrations inhibited the elongation growth of shoots in both the varieties and intensity of inhibition gradually increased with the rise of concentrations.

The retardation in plant height caused by cycocel might be due to shortening of internodes by decreasing cell division and cell numbers. Child 1984 reported marked reductions in growth rate immediately following application of cycocel on oilseed rape.

It antagonizes the biosynthesis of GAs and hence elongation growth is inhibited Setia and Setia, 1990. The results are in conformity with some early reports Bora and Sarma, 2004; Prasad and Prasad, 1994. On the other hand cycocel irrespective of concentrations tried was superior to the control in enhancing the number of branches per plant in both the varieties.

Chlorophyll-b content was higher over the chlorophyll-a in all the concentrations tried. Aparna chlorophyll content decreased gradually with the rise of GA3 concentration except in cv. Similar results were observed in cotton Bhatt and Ramanujam, 1970 and pea Bora and Sarma, 2003. It was suggested that the increase in cell volume caused by GA3 was not correlated with an increase in synthesis of chlorophyll content and thus a dilution of the chlorophyll content of the leaves was obtained.

The effect of cycocel in increasing chlorophyll contents may be due to the reduction in cell size resulting in denser cytoplasm Appleby et al. The results are in conformity with early reports in soybean Bora and Sarma, 2004.

At maturity, plant growth regulators significantly affected yield characteristics. On the other hand, both the varieties showed a varied response to cycocel. Cycocel, irrespective of concentrations was superior over the control in enhancing the number of flowers and pods per plant in cv. Chlorophyll content in pea leaves developed from GA3 treated seeds Table 6: Clorophyll content in pea leaves developed from cycocel treated seeds Table 7: Effect of GA3 on number of flowers, number of pods per plant, seed yieldseed index and protein content in seeds of pea Table 8: Effect of cycocel on number of flower, pods per plant, seed yield, seed index and protein content in seeds of pea Azad-P-1 while in cv.

Santes and Garcia 1995 reported that GA3 controls the pod development in pea. Goto and Pharis 1999 reported that Gas not only act to normalise plant height but also stimulates development of floral organs. Cycocel increased number and length of siliqua in Indian mustard was also reported. Azad-P-1, respectively Table 7. Azad-P-1, respectively recording seed index 23.

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The results are in conformity with some earlier reports by Bora et al. Present study clearly indicated that PGRs have the potentiality to increase the yield of pea in both the varieties.

The highest yield was recorded as 13. At this concentration number of branches, pods per plant and seed index were also highest. Hence, yield increased as a manifestation of increased number of branches and pods per plant along with seed index.

Different concentration of cycocel differed significantly in their inherent characters to produce yield per hactre. Azad-P-1, respectively Table 8. The increased in seed yield might be due to increase in number of branches and pods per plant. Among the plant growth processes, seed germination and early seedling growth are considered critical for raising a successful crop as these indirectly determine the yield of the resultant crop Gelmond, 1978 That GA3 enhanced the yield by better utilisation of photosynthates and metabolic machinery was also reported Khan et al.

Growth regulators increase the actual productivity when the plant growth is stimulated or the photosynthates are diverted to the harvested products Setia and Setia, 1990. Also the seed production is the culmination of a number of developmental phases requiring specific nutrients to maintain the metabolic status of the flowering and seed development stages Bhatt and Mishra, 2001. The increase in shoot length due to GA3 treatment led to bear more leaves and thus better chance to trap more sunlight and produce more dry matter Khan et al.

The increase in yield in GA3 treated plants in the present investigation corroborates such findings. It has now been established that control of excessive vegetative growth might be beneficial for synchronized flower initiation and development of pods.

Cycocel reduced the vegetative growth pertaining a research on the effects of plant hormones on pea plant germination and growth the better environment for seed formation Pando and Srivastava, 1985. Cycocyl has been used to check the abscission of flower and modify the crop canopy for improving the yield in gram Bangal et al.

Growth regulators also caused an increase on protein content in the seeds. Irrespective of concentrations tried, the protein content increased with the application of GA3 and cycocel. It is established that plant hormones acted solely or in part by controlling transcription of genes Baulcombe, 1987; MacMillan and Phinney, 1987 and thus levels of mRNA Wu et al. On the other hand GA3 possibly either releases the activity or inactivates some inhibitory gene, which leads to accumulation of more proteins in the seed.

On the other hand cycocel reduces the elongation growth of shoots and as a result less photosynthates are utilized for vegetative growth.

  1. Here, water content of the pod showed significant correlation with GA, thus suggesting the important role of GA in pod development. Hormones get things done.
  2. It is well documented that GA plays a significant role in seed development in various plant species. Studies on the use of growth regulators in relation to nitrogen for enhancing sink capacity and yield of gobhi sarson Brassica napus.
  3. In conclusion, experimental results mentioned here revealed that both GA3 and cycocel brought about an improvement in morphological and yield attributes of pea. On the basis of growth analysis, seed development in the two varieties can be divided into four distinct stages.
  4. Soon after, a substance that had the same biological effect as kinetin was found in plants, it stimulated plant cells to divide when in culture with auxin.
  5. This is mainly due to a GA-mediated increase in cell expansion.

More protein content stored in the seeds might be due to improvement of translocation of photosynthates to the seeds. In conclusion, experimental results mentioned here revealed that both GA3 and cycocel brought about an improvement in morphological and yield attributes of pea.

Highest yield and protein content under the influence of growth regulators might be due to activation of various internal mechanisms related with plant growth and metabolism. The findings of the present investigation are also in agreement with the earlier reports in soybean, Brassica napus Grewal et al.

Effect of cycocel and saline irrigation of physiological attributes, yield and its components in different varieties of guar Cymopsis tetragonoloba L. Influence of 2-chloroethyl trimethyl ammoniumchloride CCC on wheat when applied as seed treatment. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Note on the effects of growth regulators and urea on yield attributes of gram Cicer arietinum.

Hormone Action in Plant Development: A Critical Appraisal, Hoad, G. Effect of cycocel on yield, chlorophyll content and fiber properties of lint of MCU cotton. Effect of plant growth regulators on growth, yield and protein content of pea cv. Effect of growth retardants and ethaphon on growth and yield formation of oilseed rape. Aspects of Applied Biology 6. Effect of chlormequat on plant height, disease development and chemical constituents of cultivars of barley, oat and wheat.