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Compare two psychological approaches to health and social care

Page 3-6 M1 — Assess different psychological approaches to study………………………………………………. Page 15 P1 — Explain the principal psychological perspectives For this assignment I will be explaining the main psychological perspectives, these are views that involve certain assumptions about the human behaviour and the way humans function. Although there are several theories in each approach they all share very common assumptions. Behaviourist Perspectives Pavlov — It is believed to be possible that we can classical condition train humans to behave in a certain way.

Ivan Pavlov 1849 -1936 proved that classical conditioning is effective, through his dog experiment, for this to occur he needed the right environment.

  1. Skinner compared his experiment to humans and gambling by saying that by continuing to play they are waiting for the reward of money.
  2. The id is more assertive The super ego are the values that have formed via socialisation and maturity, this controls the id. Children observe people models around them, especially behaviour; this is proven during the famous Bobo doll experiment.
  3. The other two parts; the ego and superego were said to be in your conscious.
  4. Twin studies provide geneticists with a kind of natural experiment in which the behavioural likeness of identical twins can be compared with the resemblance of dizygotic twins whose genetic relatedness is 0.

In this case; Food: Unconditioned stimuli Dog salivating: Unconditioned response automatic response Food: Unconditioned response Condition stimuli: Ringing the bell Stimulus: Something that provokes a specific functional organ to react Skinners — Operant conditioning A rat can be taught how to behave using positive and negative reinforcements, i.

Skinner usually conducted this experiment with rats and pigeons. Operant conditioning is produced when behaviour is rewarded. Reinforcement is the repetition which adjusts the behaviour over time. There are different types of reinforcements e. Behaving in primary school and receiving stickers in class from teachers. Attending and being punctual in college and getting bursary. Negative; Putting on oven gloves to pick up a piping hot bowl, hands are not burned after.

This occurs when something is prevented from happening, so we learn to prevent burning our hands by putting on the gloves.

Unit 8 Psychological Perspectives for Health and Social Care

Social Learning Theory — Albert Bandura 1925 Observational learning — agrees with the two behaviourism theories classical conditioning and operant condition though he does add two more important ideas -: Mediating processes occur between stimuli and responses.

Behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. This theory suggests that behaviour can be learnt by observing others around us therefore it focuses on observational learning.

In order for the perspective to take place successfully, there must be: Attention — in order to learn the behaviour attentiveness, reproduction and motivation. Sometimes others learn by observing you, this is called reverse learning. The way we behave influences the way that others respond to us e.

Children observe people models around them, especially behaviour; this is proven during the famous Bobo doll experiment. Children are surrounded with many models around them such as parents, siblings, cousins, TV and friends. These models provide a type of behaviour to observe and imitate E. Psychodynamic Theory — Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 and Erik Erikson 1902-1944 Freud was an Id psychologist, he believed that the events we go through in our childhood can possibly have a significant impact on our behaviour as adults, however he also claims that if our development needs are met well at an early age we will progress normally.

Id, Ego and Super-ego. This is where we are unconscious and exist from birth, where we only focus on getting what we want Super ego: The super ego tries to restrain the compare two psychological approaches to health and social care of the id. Humanism This is a psychological theory which articulates the study of the person, humanistic psychologists observe not only the persons behaviour through their own eyes but they also observe through the person who is doing the behaving, two psychologists, Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers became very well known for their humanistic theories.

They assume that everyone has their own unique and different way of seeing the world through their own eyes, humanist psychologists explicitly approve that everyone has a free will and are all capable of choosing their own actions. Abraham Maslow had a hierarchy of needs: Jean Piaget 1896-1980 was a psychologist and performed experiments on children who had similar intelligence; the main idea behind this was constructivism.

Piaget had 4 stages of cognitive which were: George Kelly 1905-1966 was known for developing the psychology of construct, he viewed individuals to scientists. Personal constructs according to Kelly can be seen as statement with two opposite ends such as bipolar statements, e. Arnold Gesell 1880-1961 is credited for developing the theory of maturation. In the womb we develop according to a set of fixed stages: Bones and muscles 4.

And from birth onwards, our genes are what are responsible for our actions.

  1. Some of these drugs have very bad side effects, which can lead to further problems such as addiction or dependency.
  2. Childhood experiences greatly affect emotions and behavior as adults The id, ego and super-ego make up personality The drives behind behavior are a the lift instinct and sex drive and b death instinct and aggressive drive. Short-term memory — the information we use regularly is stored here — hearing and visual.
  3. However with other people that have experienced bad early experiences then they can often not recover The biological approaches Psychologists from the biological approach assume that behaviour and experiences are caused by activity in the nervous system of the body.
  4. After age five, the latency period ensues, during which sexual impulses lie dormant and the child turns away from anything sexually related. This clearly defies the concepts of Social Learning Theory as it states that violence or any other behaviour can only be learnt through either experience or watching another person experiences it.
  5. After age five, the latency period ensues, during which sexual impulses lie dormant and the child turns away from anything sexually related.

M1 — Assess different psychological approaches to study For this assignment I am going to be assessing and discussing the criticisms and strengths of two different psychological approaches to study, which are the biological perspective and thee humanistic approach.

Also, being nomothetic which means relating to the study of general scientific laws, the biological approach develops theories about disorders and seeks to find something that applies to everyone.

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The view does not say that all humans are unique; this was proven when the General Adaptation Syndrome had assumed that we all respond in the same way to stress however some people receive more support than others do. Humanistic Approach The terms humanistic, humanism and humanist in psychology all relate to an approach which studies the whole person. The humanistic approach focuses on the person as a whole rather than focusing on small aspects, humanism rejects a few approaches like the behaviourist, determinism and scientific methods.

The primary problem with the Humanistic approach is the practical evidence not being provided to support claims; another weakness of the humanistic theory is that psychologists think that the treatments are only aimed at certain issues. Although many people focus on the flaws, others are for the humanistic theory as this perspective looks at experiences from the view of a human which focuses on being entitled to making our own choices and our free will, Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are the two psychologists behind this theory.

A lot of people have seen the benefits of humanism move onto different professions. The Behaviourist Approach in health and social care The main assumption of the behaviourist perspective is that all behaviour is learned and shaped by the environment. For example in the Bandura et al. The leading expectations from the behaviourist approach are that all types of behaviour consists of responses to stimuli, compare two psychological approaches to health and social care behaviour is influenced from our environment.

Two important learning theories proposed by the behaviourist perspective are classical conditioning Pavlov and operant conditioning Skinner. Classical conditioning explains how we learn behaviours through association and operant conditioning explains how the consequences of behaviours reinforces shape behaviour. The behaviourist perspective consists of two components of the conditioning theory- classical conditioning; which claims behaviour is learnt as a result of association.

Unit 8 Psychological Perspectives for Health and Social Care

The Psycho-Dynamic Approach compare two psychological approaches to health and social care health and social care The psycho dynamic theory in its broadest sense is an approach to psychology that emphasises systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behaviour, feelings, and emotions and how they might relate to early experience.

This will provide insight into how the patient views his relationships, experiences and the world and how that affects their preferences, behaviours and drives and therefore personality. The unconscious mind is the part of the brain which stores the memories which have been forgotten or put away in order for them not to be remembered because they may be negative.

Therefore the person will be unaware of the change in their personality if the unconscious mind becomes active. M2 — Compare two psychological approaches to health and social care service provision For M2 I will be comparing the two psychological approaches to health and social care service provisions which are the behaviourist approach and psychodynamic theory.

Psychodynamic Theory Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 was the first person to discover this approach however many psychologists have been developing the perspective over the years.

Psychodynamic means a wide number of theories which emphasise the effect of the unconscious mind, personality, interpersonal relationships and the influence of childhood experiences which will have an effect on the person later on in their life. Freud suggested that the causes of behaviour originate from the unconscious mind, he thought strongly that personality is made up of three things which are: The id, ego and super ego. The ego is what develops from the unrealistic and fantasy orientated id and the real world out there; the ego has reasons for the decisions made in order to avoid pain and reduce tension unlike the id.

The significance in the term dynamic within the psychodynamic approach to phobias rest upon the fact that these underlying psychological forces within an individual can be both contradictory in addition to complimentary to one another, shyness is a very common type of fear, however if it is major, it will have an impact on the individuals life.

Unit 8: Psychological Perspectives for Health and Social Care

Operant conditioning can be used in schools for students with behavioural problems so when the child behaves in the certain way they should, they get a reward. The child will then be conditioned to behaving in a certain manner as the classical conditioning with have a chain reaction. The behaviourist approach is based on an assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment, rules and regulations are places in education systems to allow the children a standard outline of a basic routine.

I have compared the psychodynamic theory and the behaviourist approach. D1 — Evaluate two psychological approaches to health and social care service provision I will be evaluating the psychodynamic approach and behaviourist approach to health and social care provision.

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The Psychodynamic Approach The psychodynamic approach which was developed by Freud emphasizes the interplay of unconscious psychological processes in determining human thoughts, feelings and behaviour.

The approach interprets that psychological factors play a major role in determining behaviour and shaping personality, Freud says that everyone was born with the ID which was in our unconscious which made us selfish and unaware. The ego and superego are in our conscious where we begin to think and care about others as well as our selves.

M2 - compare two psychological approaches to health and social care service provision

The oral stage occurs during the first year of life as the mouth is centre of pleasure; babies obtain gratification through sucking and biting just like adults when they bite their nails, binge drink or comfort eat.

The anal stage then occurs when toilet training begins followed by the ego whilst the child vacillates between ID impulses and parental demands. The phallic stage starts at the age of three and can go up until the age of five. Boys go through the Oedipus complex meaning they have sexual desires for his mother and wants to kill his father out of jealousy. The girls go through the Electra complex which makes her hate her mother because she is jealous and transfers a deeper love towards her father.

Adolescence then goes on until death and sexual desires may appear and re appear as boys and girls get more involved with the opposite sex. The Behaviourist Approach The behaviourist approach suggests that people learn through their interaction with the environment; however there are both advantages and disadvantages towards this approach.

This approach aims to study behaviour which is observable and directly measurable and this is done because thoughts and opinions are operationalized making it possible to analyse and compare differing behaviours. On the other hand, as there is so much emphasis on nurture, it focuses on how the environment affects and shapes behaviour meaning the role of nature is left ignored because behaviourists usually ignore that genetic make-up could have an impact on the way in which we behave.

A lot of internal factors govern human behaviour e. A major strength of the behaviourist approach is that it focuses on behaviour which can be observed and manipulated under laboratory conditions, as the environment is highly controlled, collecting objective quantitative data. The association with alcohol consumption could be documented easily e. This being the strength of the perspective, using scientific methods gives added status to psychology. The stages of social-emotional development — Erik Erikson.