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The effects of the civil war and the actions that led to the war

Library of Congress In the growth years following the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, Congress was compelled to establish a policy to guide the expansion of slavery into the new western territory. In addition to the deeper moral issue posed by the growth of slavery, the addition of pro-slavery Missouri legislators would give the pro-slavery faction a Congressional majority.

10 Major Effects of the American Civil War

Ultimately, Congress reached a series of agreements that became known as the Missouri Compromise. Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine was admitted as a free state, preserving the Congressional balance. A line was also drawn through the unincorporated western territories along the 36?? It is hushed indeed for the moment.

  1. It is noteworthy that the new law did not free slaves being held in the border states of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. The outpouring of Civil War-era diaries and memoirs continues unabated.
  2. How beliefs such as this came to pass in the years between 1619 and 1860 reveals the astonishing capacity of human nature to confound traditional a posteriori deduction in an effort to justify what had become by then largely unjustifiable.
  3. His victory, without a single Southern electoral vote, was a clear signal to the Southern states that they had lost all influence.

But this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence. A geographical line, coinciding with a marked principle, moral and political, once conceived and held up to the angry passions of men, will never be obliterated; and every new irritation will mark it deeper and deeper.

Library of Congress In August of 1831, a slave named Nat Turner incited an uprising that spread through several plantations in southern Virginia.

How the Civil War Changed Your Life

Turner and approximately seventy cohorts killed around sixty white people. The deployment of militia infantry and artillery suppressed the rebellion after two days of terror. Fifty-five slaves, including Turner, were tried and executed for their role in the insurrection.

Nearly two hundred more were lynched by frenzied mobs. Virginia lawmakers reacted to the crisis by rolling back what few civil rights slaves and free black people possessed at the time.

  • The argument that emancipation was a military necessity was gaining ground;
  • Abraham Lincoln was a member of the new anti-slavery Republican Party;
  • Union army volunteer, photograph by Mathew Brady, 1861;
  • The First Transcontinental Railroad.

Education was prohibited and the right to assemble was severely limited. If passed, the Proviso would have outlawed slavery in territory acquired by the United States as a result of the war, which included most of the Southwest and extended all the way to California.

  • Abraham Lincoln had proposed lenient Reconstruction policies and, after his assassination, new president Andrew Jackson intended to follow the same principle;
  • Was the preservation of these united states worth the cost in blood?
  • But they weren't around after secession, and in 1862 Congress passed a series of land-grant measures that would forever change America's political, economic and physical landscape;
  • Equally outraged Southerners sent their own settlers, and a brutish group known as Border Ruffians from slaveholding Missouri went into Kansas to make trouble for the abolitionists;
  • After a 34-hour bombardment, Maj.

Wilmot spent two years fighting for his plan. He offered it as a rider on existing bills, introduced it to Congress on its own, and even tried to attach it to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Nevertheless, the intensity of the debate surrounding the Proviso prompted the first serious discussions of secession.

The compromise prevented further territorial expansion of slavery while strengthening the Fugitive Slave Act, a law which compelled Northerners to seize and return escaped slaves to the South. While the agreement succeeded in postponing outright hostilities between the North and South, it did little to address, and in some ways even reinforced, the structural disparity that divided the United States. The new Fugitive Slave Act, by forcing non-slaveholders to participate in the institution, also led to increased polarization among centrist citizens.

Its popularity brought the issue of slavery to life for those few who remained unmoved after decades of legislative conflict and widened the division between North and South. Pro- and anti-slavery agitators flocked to Kansas, hoping to shift the decision by sheer weight of numbers.

The two factions struggled for five years with sporadic outbreaks of bloodshed that claimed fifty-six lives. Although both territories eventually ratified anti-slavery constitutions, the violence shocked and troubled the nation. Sanford Chief Justice Roger Taney proclaimed blacks "so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect.

American Civil War

The case eventually rose to the level of the Supreme Court, where the justices found that, as a slave, Dred Scott was a piece of property that had none of the legal rights or recognitions afforded to a human being. The Dred Scott Decision threatened to entirely recast the political landscape that had thus far managed to prevent civil war. Southerners renewed their challenges to the agreed-upon territorial limitations on slavery and polarization intensified.

  • Homesteading in the West;
  • Union army volunteer, photograph by Mathew Brady, 1861;
  • Or a Free Soiler;
  • A key issue was states' rights;
  • But that year the Republican Party was founded by anti-slavery activists and refugees from other political parties to fight the iron grip of powerful southern Democrats.

In mid-October of 1859, the crusading abolitionist organized a small band of white allies and free blacks and raided a government arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He hoped to seize weapons and distribute them to Southern slaves in order to spark a wracking series of slave uprisings.

Although Brown captured the arsenal, he was quickly surrounded and forced to surrender by soldiers under the command of Colonel Robert E. He was tried for treason and, upon his execution, became a martyr for the abolitionist cause. Southerners, on the other hand, began to militarize in preparation for future raids. On December 20, 1860, a little over a month after the polls closed, South Carolina seceded from the Union.

Six more states followed by the spring of 1861. Library of Congress With secession, several federal forts, including Fort Sumter in South Carolina, suddenly became outposts in a foreign land. Abraham Lincoln made the decision to send fresh supplies to the beleaguered garrisons. On April 12, 1861, Confederate warships turned back the supply convoy to Fort Sumter and opened a 34-hour bombardment on the stronghold.

The garrison surrendered on April 14. The Civil War was now underway. On April 15, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to join the Northern army. Unwilling to contribute troops, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee dissolved their ties to the federal government.