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The causes and prevalence of traumatic brain injuries in the united states

  • The average TBI incidence rate combined hospitalization and mortality rate is 95 per 100,000 population;
  • J Head Trauma Rehab, 1999; 14 6;
  • The development of more effective strategies to improve the outcomes of these injuries and minimize disability among those injured;
  • EDs for sports and recreation-related diagnosis of concussion or TBI;
  • Maryland Medical Journal 1989;
  • Falls were the leading cause of death for persons 65 years of age or older.

Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury Of all types of injury, those to the brain are among the most likely to result in death or permanent disability.

Estimates of traumatic brain injury TBI incidence, severity, and cost reflect the enormous losses to individuals, their families, and society from these injuries. These data demonstrate a critical need for more effective ways to prevent brain injuries and care for those who are injured. Highlights Incidence of traumatic brain injury TBI. The average TBI incidence rate combined hospitalization and mortality rate is 95 per 100,000 population.

Twenty-two percent of people who have a TBI die from their injuries. The risk of having a TBI is especially high among adolescents, young adults, and people older than 75 years of age. For persons of all ages, the risk of TBI among males is twice the risk among females. The leading causes of TBI are motor vehicle crashes, violence, and falls. Nearly two-thirds of firearm-related TBIs are classified as suicidal in intent.

The leading causes of TBI vary by age: The outcome of these injuries varies greatly depending on the cause: Incidence and prevalence of TBI-related disability. Each year more than 80,000 Americans survive a hospitalization for traumatic brain injury but are discharged with TBI-related disabilities.

The preliminary estimates described above are derived from provisional data that are subject to change, pending receipt of additional data. Traumatic Brain Injury Incidence: Morbidity and Mortality There are several published epidemiologic studies of TBI-related hospitalizations and deaths in the U.

  1. Oxford University Press, 1989.
  2. Ongoing surveillance to follow trends in the incidence, risk factors, causes, and outcomes of these injuries. American Journal of Epidemiology 1984;119.
  3. Among non-fatal TBI-related injuries in 2013.
  4. These data highlight the success of efforts to prevent traumatic brain injury due to motor vehicles and failure to prevent such injuries due to firearms.
  5. Motor vehicle—traffic injury is the leading cause of TBI-related death.

Kraus has reviewed some of these studies in detail. Firearms surpassed motor vehicles as the largest single cause of death associated with traumatic brain injury in the United States in 1990. These data highlight the success of efforts to prevent traumatic brain injury due to motor vehicles and failure to prevent such injuries due to firearms.

The increasing importance of penetrating injury has important implications for research, treatment, and prevention of traumatic brain injury in the United States. Most studies indicate that the highest rates of these injuries are found in persons 15-24 years of age. Persons under the age of 5 or over the age of 75 are also at high risk. Outcome Each year more than 50,000 Americans die following traumatic brain injuries.

There are many kinds of impairments that may occur as a result of TBI. These injuries may impair: About 1 percent of persons with severe TBI survive in a state of persisting unconsciousness. Cost There is no way to describe fully the human costs of traumatic brain injury: Only a few analyses of the monetary costs of these injuries are available, including the following estimate lifetime cost of all brain injuries occurring in the United States in 1985: This is a public health problem that requires: Ongoing surveillance to follow trends in the incidence, risk factors, causes, and outcomes of these injuries.

The development of effective, science-based strategies to prevent the occurrence of these injuries. The development of more effective strategies to improve the outcomes of these injuries and minimize disability among those injured.

This project will determine the burden of disabilities, monitor trends in disabilities, identify subgroups of people with traumatic brain injury at highest risk of disability, and determine service utilization and barriers to service access. Developed Facts about Concussion and Brain Injury to address the lack of information on the symptoms, sequelae and treatment of less severe TBI. This booklet explains what can happen after a concussion, how to get better, and where to go for more information and help when needed.

A Report to Congress, summarizing current knowledge about the incidence, causes, severity, associated disabilities, and prevalence of TBI. Emergency department visits association with traumatic brain injury: Brain Injury, 2000; 14 2: Thurman DJ, Guerrero J. Trends in hospitalization associated with traumatic brain injury. JAMA, 1999; 282 10: Trends in death associated with traumatic brain injury, 1979-1992.

Methods are described in: Traumatic brain injury in the United States: J Head Trauma Rehab, 1999; 14 6: Epidemiology of head injury.

Get the Stats on Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States

Head Injury, Third Edition. Williams and Wilkins, 1993; 1-25. The incidence, cause and secular trends in head injury in Olmstead County, Minnesota, 1935-1974. The national head and spinal cord injury survey: Journal of Neurosurgery 1980;53: The epidemiology of head injury: A prospective study of an entire community--San Diego County, California, 1978.

American Journal of Epidemiology 1981;113: Epidemiologic features of head injury in a predominantly rural population. Journal of Trauma 1984;24: Incidence and outcome of hospital-treated head injury in Rhode Island.

American Journal of Public Health 1986;76: Comparative head trauma experience in two socioeconomically different Chicago-area commmunities: American Journal of Epidemiology 1984; 4: The epidemiology of head injury in the Bronx.

The incidence of acute brain injury and serious impairment in a defined population. American Journal of Epidemiology 1984;119: Hospitalized head-injured patients in Maryland: Incidence and severity of injuries. Maryland Medical Journal 1989: Surveillance of traumatic brain injuries in Utah. West J Med 1996;165: Traumatic brain injury -- Colorado, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Utah, 1990-1993.

Urban and rural traumatic brain injuries in Colorado.

Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults

Thurman DJ, et al. A report to Congress. Trends in death associated with brain injury, 1979-1992. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1991;6 2: National Committee for Injury Prevention and Control.

Oxford University Press, 1989. Toward a National Agenda for Prevention. National Academy Press, 1991.