College papers academic writing service


What cultural factors caused the differences in outcomes

While our physical differences in size and anatomy are obvious, the question of psychological differences between the genders is a lot more complicated and controversial. There are issues around how to reliably measure the differences. And when psychologists find them, there are usually arguments over whether the causes are innate and biological, or social and cultural.

Are men and women born different or does society shape them that way?

  • The Importance of Values Diving a bit deeper on that, all of the above is driven by our values;
  • Cities also have advanced communication and transport networks;
  • Many have lived, worked, and taught across Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and beyond.

These questions are particularly thorny when you consider our differences in personality. Most research suggests that men and women really do differ on some important traits. But are these differences the result of biology or cultural pressures?

And just how meaningful are they in the real world?

  • Even where adequate water supplies are available, sanitation and wastewater disposal are often inadequate or missing;
  • There are differences on how easily one would build trust with someone;
  • And when psychologists find them, there are usually arguments over whether the causes are innate and biological, or social and cultural.

One possibility is that most differences are tiny in size but that combined they can have important consequences. View image of Credit: Alamy One of the most influential studies in the fieldpublished in by pioneering personality researchers Paul Costa, Robert McCrae and Antonio Terracciano, involved over 23, men and women from 26 cultures filling out personality questionnaires.

Across these diverse cultures, including Hong Kong, USA, India and Russia, women consistently rated themselves as being warmer, friendlier and more anxious and sensitive to their feelings than did the men.

The men, meanwhile, consistently rated themselves as being more assertive and open to new ideas. In the jargon of personality psychology, the women had scored higher on average on Agreeableness and Neuroticism and on one facet of Openness to Experience, while the men scored higher on one facet of Extraversion and a different facet of Openness to Experience.

Do men and women really have different personalities?

Similar results came in when a separate research team asked more than 17, people from 55 cultures, to fill out personality questionnaires. Again, women scored themselves higher on Agreeableness and Neuroticism and this time also on Conscientiousness and the warmth and gregariousness facets of Extraversion.

One obvious criticism was that the participants were rating their own personalities. Perhaps the women and men differed simply because they were describing themselves in the way their societies expected them to be.

But this seems unlikely because another studyled by McCrae and his collaborators, found broadly similar results from 12, people from 55 diverse cultures even though they were asked to rate the personality of a man or women they knew well, rather than their own personality. Adding to the picture, other research has shown that the genders begin to differ in personality very early in life. For example, one study published in looked at ratings of the temperament of pairs of twins made when they were three-years-old.

Accessibility links

The boys were rated as more active, on average, than the girls, while the girls were rated as more shy and as having more control over their attention and behaviour. Another study looked at average differences in personality between women and men aged 65 to 98, and just as with research on younger adults, the elderly women tended to score higher on Neuroticism and Agreeableness than the elderly men. These findings make sense to evolutionary psychologists who say that our psychological traits today reflect the effect of survival demands experienced by our distant ancestors, and further, that these demands were different for men and women.

For example, women with more nurturing personalities would have been more likely to succeed in raising vulnerable offspring, while men with bolder personalities would have been more successful in competing for mates. In turn, these traits would have been passed down to successive generations. Some scholars and commentators are uncomfortable with such a biological account of human behaviour, however, which they feel underestimates the influence of the social and cultural forces that shape who we are and how we behave.

This seems to run against the idea that our personalities develop from cultural expectations around traditional gender roles. One explanation for this surprise finding is that the innate, biological factors that what cultural factors caused the differences in outcomes personality differences between men and women are more dominant in cultures where the genders are more equal. Alamy Another way to look at this issue is to use an implicit measure of personality. This involves using speed of keyboard responses pressing different keyboard keys as fast as possible in response to different words to test how readily people associate words pertaining to themselves with those describing different personality traits.

A research team led by Michelangelo Vianello at the University of Padua in Italy used this approach in with a study involving over 14, people surveyed via the Project Implicit website. Gender differences in personality were three times smaller using the implicit measure as compared with a standard personality questionnaire, suggesting the differences uncovered by standard questionnaires are influenced by conscious biases.

  • These make the water unsafe for humans to use for many purposes including drinking and irrigation, as well as harming the fish and other animals and plants living in the water;
  • And just how meaningful are they in the real world?
  • You may not be aware of your own values and beliefs until you are confronted with someone different than you, e;
  • The complexities apart, creating some common ground rules does help building trust and commitment;
  • Explain what is meant by natural increase of population;
  • The Importance of Values Diving a bit deeper on that, all of the above is driven by our values.

And yet, while diminished, the implicit measure still revealed statistically significant differences in average personality between men and women, especially in relation to women scoring higher on Neuroticism and Agreeableness. In short, this result suggests that gender differences in personality are there at a subconscious level, but studies which relied on self-reporting may have overstated differences in gender, perhaps in part because people wanted to fit in with cultural expectations.

While most large studies have tended to find the most consistent gender differences in the main traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness, other scholars have pointed out there could be more extensive differences if only one were to look in more detail. Extraversion, for example, comprises two aspects: The researchers said that these would not have shown up in studies at the level of the Big Five traits, as used in most earlier research.

This is consistent with the size of the gender differences uncovered by McCrae and others in their large cross-cultural studies, which also tended to be quite subtle. We hear a lot from pop psychologists and cultural commentators about men and women being like different species.

  1. The lack of sanitation and sewerage systems has a dramatic impact on urban watercourses.
  2. People are moving away from rural areas because of poor health care and limited educational and economic opportunities as well as environmental changes, droughts, floods, lack of availability of sufficiently productive land, and other pressures on rural livelihoods.
  3. But in an international business context, what is common and accepted for a professional from one country, could be very different for a colleague from overseas. But this seems unlikely because another study , led by McCrae and his collaborators, found broadly similar results from 12, people from 55 diverse cultures even though they were asked to rate the personality of a man or women they knew well, rather than their own personality.
  4. When in doubt, erring on the side of formality is generally safest.
  5. In turn, this can mean relatively informal communication and an emphasis on cooperation across the organization.

In they published a paper in which they claimed previous research had underestimated gender differences in personality by taking the average of all trait differences rather than viewing them cumulatively. In an email, Del Giudice explained his approach to me with an analogy. Alamy What should we make of this bold claim?

Other experts are less convinced.

Study Session 5 Urbanisation: Trends, Causes and Effects

While the debates about the size and causes of gender differences in personality are likely to rumble on for many more years, it seems reasonable to conclude that for whatever reason, there are at least some differences, however large or modest, in the personality of the average man and woman. And remember that this is about personality, not all aspects of cognition and behaviour. There is increasing recognition of the part played by our personality traits in influencing our life choices and mental wellbeing.

Pretending that gender differences are smaller than they are deprives people of a very important piece of knowledge about themselves and others. If we understand this, our judgment becomes broader and less superficial, whether we like the way we are or would like to change it.