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Citing direct quotes in a research paper

Posted by Chelsea Lee at 1: Some in-text citations also include page numbers or other location information when page numbers are not available, as with some online materials.

This post describes when and how to include page numbers in APA Style for different kinds of citations as well as how to include the appropriate location information in lieu of page numbers when page numbers are not available. Direct Quotations A direct quotation reproduces the words of another writer verbatim and is displayed in quotation marks if the quotation is fewer than 40 words or as a block quotation if the quotation is 40 words or more.

When you include a direct quotation in a paper, include the author, date, and page number on which the quotation can be found or other location information in the citation.

There are many ways to cite a direct quotation; see more examples here. For example, you might put a sentence into your own words, or you might summarize what another author or set of authors found.

When you include a paraphrase in a paper, you are required to include only the author and date in the citation. You are encouraged but not required to also provide the page number or other location information for a paraphrased citation when it would help the reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text such as when you use only a short part of a book. The examples below show a citation for a paraphrase that includes the page number. Bram and Peebles 2014 advocated for psychologists to evaluate all the available data before making a deduction, just as Sherlock Holmes investigates a case, lest they jump to an erroneous conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence pp.

There are many ways to paraphrase material; here are more examples and some advice. How to Cite Material Without Page Numbers If the cited material does not have page numbers such as may occur with some e-books and you need them for an in-text citation, use any of the following location information instead: Psychological testing that matters: Creating a road map for effective treatment.

Retiring minds citing direct quotes in a research paper to know. Monitor on Psychology, 45 1. You are so beautiful.

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Seeing beyond biases and achieving accuracy in romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 516—528. I translated a quotation from the article from French into English.

How do I format my translation of the quotation? Do I use quotation marks around it?

E. Direct Quotes

Yours, Dear Translated Terry, Your conundrum is a common one in this multilingual world. Luckily, the solution is quite simple: If you translated a passage from one language into another it is considered a paraphrase, not a direct quotation. Thus, to cite your translated material, all you need to do is include the author and date of the material in the in-text citation.

We recommend but do not require that you also include the page number in the citation, because this will help any readers who do speak French to find the translated passage in the original. Here is an example: Translated quotation that appeared in the paper: Women working in masculine fields adopted masculine stereotypes Doutre, 2014, p. In the reference list, provide the citation for the work in its original language. Also provide an English translation of the title of the work in square brackets after the foreign-language title, without italics.

Consequences for identity and working relationships]. You may wonder why your translation is considered a paraphrase rather than a direct quotation. Nevertheless, because we can't codify how exact any given translation is, it would be inappropriate to put quotation marks around the translated words. Citing a Published Translation Finally, note that citing a translation you made is different than citing a published translation someone else made. If you read a work in translation and you used a direct quotation from it in your paper, you would put quotation marks around the quoted passage just as for any other direct quotation citation.

Although the work has been translated, it exists in a distinct, retrievable form. Likewise, in the reference list you would write an entry for the translated version of the work. I hope this helps you cite your own translations in APA Style.