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Data collection method and instrument managerial research

The measured constructs from models of motivational factors individual perceptions about, and attitudes towards, personally performing the six clinical behaviours and their intentions to perform the behaviours and action factors including habits, rewards, action plans, coping plans over the following 12 months. The wording of the items to operationalise the theoretical models data collection method and instrument managerial research informed by the pilot work undertaken for previous studies by the authors using similar methodology and theoretical models [ 451238 - 40 ].

We measured intentions in two ways. Table 4 Theories, models, and other measures of individual cognitions and attributes and example questions Model, theoretical constructs number of questions Example Item s Theory of Planned Behaviour TPB Attitude 3 In my management of patients with diabetes I think it is beneficial to them to 'provide advice about weight management.

Demographics Open in a separate window The third section of the baseline questionnaire included four patient scenarios designed to simulate the behaviour that an individual clinician would perform during a consultation and delivered in a format to simulate the computer screen available during consultations see pages 33 to 43 Additional File 2.

Primary care doctors and nurses were asked whether they would address each of a series of diabetes-related factors, including the six behaviours targeted in the present study, by indicating whether they 'would do' or 'would do if time' address each diabetes-related area of care. The attributes of each scenario were varied, but given the small number of scenarios it was not possible to systematically vary every combination of every variable. Questionnaire piloting Two primary care practices in northeast England took part in piloting the questionnaires.

The first section organisational questions was piloted with seven administrative staff practice managers, secretarial and reception staff and seven healthcare professionals primary care physicians, practice nurses, and one healthcare assistant. Piloting was by postal survey for all administrative staff and for five clinical staff.

Data Collection Methods

Participants were provided with the questionnaire and a stamped addressed envelope to return the questionnaire to the study research associate. They were given written guidance that asked them to complete the questions in their own time, noting how long it took to complete and to comment freely on the clarity and acceptability of the questions.

The questions were found to be acceptable, there were no missing responses and the time taken to complete the instrument varied from seven to 25 minutes median 20 minutes. No adjustments were made to the questions following piloting. The second and third sections were initially piloted using postal methods as described above with one primary care physician and two practice nurses.

One lead primary care physician for diabetes and one diabetes specialist nurse also piloted the questionnaire during a face-to-face session with the study research associate using 'think aloud' technique [ 41 ].

  • Detailed landings can still be recorded as long as each batch is marked with its source vessel name and trip identifier;
  • As such, they predominantly deal with only certain types and size of fishing units, most often belonging to industrial and semi-industrial fleets;
  • This method is ideal for obtaining in-depth descriptive data on beliefs and practices, including historical practices;
  • This extra information increases the sample size significantly with little extra cost, ultimately resulting in better estimates of total fishing effort.

Based on the feedback received and concerns expressed during the 'think aloud' sessions, adjustments were made to minimise repetition in the wording of the items, and two behavioural scenarios see Measures of behaviour below were removed leaving four in the final version to shorten the questionnaire and to keep the completion time within an estimated maximum of two hours.

The amended questionnaire was then re-piloted using postal methods with the two original 'think aloud' participants and an additional two primary care physicians and two practice nurses.

Data collection methods

No further amendments were suggested as a result of the re-piloting. Twelve-month self-reported behaviour questionnaire A 'self-reported behaviour' questionnaire, asked individual clinicians about their performance of each of the six clinical behaviours over the previous 12 months see Additional File 3: Self Reported behaviour questionnaire.

The items used in this very brief questionnaire one item for each of the six clinical behaviours were worded: Such measures of behaviour are commonly used and are well predicted by social cognition models [ 2 ]. Instrument administration Telephone interview Data were collected between March and August 2008 during a 30-minute telephone interview with a nominated study contact practice manager, practice research nurse, or a general practitioner lead for diabetes at each of the recruited primary care practices.

The study contact was sent a summary of the data collected for verification and asked to check with practice colleagues as necessary if they were uncertain about the accuracy of the data provided. Baseline postal questionnaire survey The baseline postal questionnaire survey ran between September and December 2008. All the questionnaires for a practice were delivered to the nominated study contact in the practice who then distributed the questionnaires to practice colleagues.

  • The response is achieved by stimulating the respondents to fill the schedule;
  • Should use sound logic in classifying respondents based opinions expressed.

All participants were provided with written information about the study, asked to complete their questionnaires individually, and provided with a pre-paid envelope to return their questionnaire directly to the study research associate. Reminders were sent to non-responders at two and four weeks.

Individuals not wishing to complete the study questionnaire and who wanted this to be confidential from their practice colleagues were given the option of returning a blank questionnaire. Twelve-month self-reported behaviour questionnaire survey This was administered 12 months after the baseline questionnaire and using the same method as described above.

Measures of behaviour Five different, complementary measures of the performance of the six study behaviours were collected. The first two provide individual level measures of behaviour, while the latter three give aggregated practice level behavioural data. Simulated behaviour This 'simulated behaviour' measure derived from clinical scenarios described above provided the first of two measures of individual clinicians' self-reported performance of the six study behaviours.

Clinicians could endorse that they 'would do' score 2 or 'would do if time' score 1 each behaviour plus add explanatory text. Scores for one of the simulated behaviours were adjusted to reflect current best practice-prescribing additional drug therapy for the management of HbA1c was, at the time of the study, advised for individuals whose HbA1c was above 8.

Clinician self-reported behaviour The 12-month self-reported behaviour questionnaire described above provided the second measure of individual clinicians' self-reported performance of the six study behaviours. Clinician behaviour based on data extracted from practice computer systems Anonymised individual patient biochemical, physiological, and drug data were extracted from practice computer systems for all patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes registered with the practice see Additional File 4: List of Read Codes for the data items.

For each of the computer systems used by the practices, search queries were written by an experienced National Health Service NHS performance data manager.

Schedule as a Data Collection Technique in Research

Data were extracted for a 25-month period i. The search queries were sent to each practice along with written guidance on running the query, a process that practices were familiar with.

The performance data manager also provided practices with telephone and email support if needed. Patient-report of clinicians' behaviour We anticipated that information on some of the study behaviours of interest might be recorded poorly, if at all, in the computer records, specifically those on the provision of advice on weight management, self-management, and general education.

  • Such research can be carried out by institutional research vessels or by industry or institutions using commercial fishing vessels;
  • Confidentiality of information such as fishing grounds and catch rates should be part of the agreement for data submission, and statistical outputs of the survey should not contain information related to individual fishing vessels or companies;
  • Baseline postal questionnaire survey The baseline postal questionnaire survey ran between September and December 2008.

A single relevant question about each was included in a patient satisfaction questionnaire previously used by the Healthcare Commission [ 42 ]. In order to increase the specificity of the measure, as well as the single item, we identified additional items that assessed specific aspects of each behaviour with the aim of producing a composite score for each behaviour.

We examined the internal consistencies and ran principle components analyses on the items within each behaviour and then across behaviours. Performance of foot examination was also asked about and so provided an additional, single item, measure of this behaviour. Using a single posting, anonymous to the research team survey for the questionnaire see Additional File 5we asked patients in the study practices about their experiences of their clinicians providing advice about weight management, self-management, and general education about their diabetes.

Questionnaires were distributed from the practice and returned to the study research associate. Quality and outcomes framework data The Quality and Outcomes Framework QOF is a voluntary annual reward and incentive programme for all primary care practices in UK, detailing practice performance across a number of clinical areas of which diabetes mellitus is one plus organisational areas [ 4344 ]. The data are extracted from practice computer systems by the local primary healthcare administrative authority on an annual basis using a standard data extraction query.

SPIRIT Statement

The QOF data for diabetes mellitus and practice organisation were collected for each of the participating practices for the 12-month period of QOF data collection May 2008 to April 2009 that best matched the 12-month period after baseline questionnaire completion.

Where available, practice level numerators and denominators were obtained for diabetes mellitus indicators and percentage achievement levels were calculated; where they were not available, the calculated point score is reported. One hundred practices were recruited and all took part in the telephone interview, baseline, and follow-up phases of the study.

One practice was subsequently excluded from all analyses due to low completion rates for all data collection; we subsequently report on 99 practices. All practices completed a telephone interview.

Informants were GPs for 47 practices, nurses for 37 practices and the practice manager for 15 practices. All practices were invited to verify their data summaries and 75 did so.