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The prevalence of domestic violence in america

  • Building the evidence base on the size and nature of violence against women in different settings and supporting countries' efforts to document and measure this violence and its consequences, including improving the methods for measuring violence against women in the context of monitoring for the Sustainable Development Goals;
  • Gender inequality and norms on the acceptability of violence against women are a root cause of violence against women;
  • To achieve lasting change, it is important to enact and enforce legislation and develop and implement policies that promote gender equality by;
  • Intimate partner and sexual violence are mostly perpetrated by men against women;
  • It is also associated with perpetration of violence for males and being a victim of violence for females.

Most of this violence is intimate partner violence. Men are more likely to perpetrate violence if they have low education, a history of child maltreatment, exposure to domestic violence against their mothers, harmful use of alcohol, unequal gender norms including attitudes accepting of violence, and a sense of entitlement over women.

There is evidence that advocacy and empowerment counselling interventions, as well as home visitation are promising in preventing or reducing intimate partner violence against women.

  1. This is central to understanding the magnitude and nature of the problem and to initiating action in countries and globally.
  2. It is also associated with perpetration of violence for males and being a victim of violence for females.
  3. Introduction The United Nations defines violence against women as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.

Situations of conflict, post conflict and displacement may exacerbate existing violence, such as by intimate partners, as well as and non-partner sexual violence, and may also lead to new forms of violence against women. Introduction The United Nations defines violence against women as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.

It includes rape, defined as the physically forced or otherwise coerced penetration of the vulva or anus with a penis, other body part or object. The prevalence estimates of intimate partner violence range from 23.

  • Declaration on the elimination of violence against women;
  • In low resource settings, prevention strategies that have been shown to be promising include;
  • Situations of conflict, post conflict and displacement may exacerbate existing violence, such as by intimate partners, as well as and non-partner sexual violence, and may also lead to new forms of violence against women;
  • Factors specifically associated with intimate partner violence include;
  • Strengthening research and capacity to assess interventions to address partner violence.

Intimate partner and sexual violence are mostly perpetrated by men against women. Risk factors Factors associated with intimate partner and sexual violence occur at individual, family, community and wider society levels.

The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)

Some are associated with being a perpetrator of violence, some are associated with experiencing violence and some are associated with both. Risk factors for both intimate partner and sexual violence include: Factors specifically associated with intimate partner violence include: Factors specifically associated with sexual violence perpetration include: Gender inequality and norms on the acceptability of violence against women are a root cause of violence against women.

Health consequences Intimate partner physical, sexual and emotional and sexual violence cause serious short- and long-term physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health problems for women.

They also affect their children, and lead to high social and economic costs for women, their families and societies. Have fatal outcomes like homicide or suicide.

Lead to unintended pregnancies, induced abortions, gynaecological problems, and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The 2013 analysis found that women who had been physically or sexually abused were 1. They are also twice as likely to have an abortion. Intimate partner violence in pregnancy also increases the likelihood of miscarriage, stillbirth, pre-term delivery and low birth weight babies.

These forms of violence can lead to depression, post-traumatic stress and other anxiety disorders, sleep difficulties, eating disorders, and suicide attempts.

The 2013 analysis found that women who have experienced intimate partner violence were almost twice as likely to experience depression and problem drinking.

Health effects can also include headaches, back pain, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal disorders, limited mobility and poor overall health. Sexual violence, particularly during childhood, can lead to increased smoking, drug and alcohol misuse, and risky sexual behaviours in later life. It is also associated with perpetration of violence for males and being a victim of violence for females.

Violence against women

Impact on children Children who grow up in families where there is violence may suffer a range of behavioural and emotional disturbances. These can also be associated with perpetrating or experiencing violence later in life. Intimate partner violence has also been associated with higher rates of infant and child mortality and morbidity through, for example diarrhoeal disease or malnutrition. Social and economic costs The social and economic costs of intimate partner and sexual violence are enormous and have ripple effects throughout society.

Women may suffer isolation, inability to work, loss of wages, lack of participation in regular activities and limited ability to care for themselves and their children. Prevention and response There are a growing number of well-designed studies looking at the effectiveness of prevention and response programmes.

More resources are needed to strengthen the prevention of and response to intimate partner and sexual violence, including primary prevention — stopping it from happening in the first place. There is some evidence from high-income countries that advocacy and counselling interventions to improve access to services for survivors of intimate partner violence are effective in reducing such violence.

Scope of the problem

Home visitation programmes involving health worker outreach by trained nurses also show promise in reducing intimate partner violence. However, these have yet to be assessed for use in resource-poor settings. In low resource settings, prevention strategies that have been shown to be promising include: To achieve lasting change, it is important to enact and enforce legislation and develop and implement policies that promote gender equality by: While preventing and responding to violence against women requires a multi-sectoral approach, the health sector has an important role to play.

The health sector can: Advocate to make violence against women unacceptable and for such violence to be addressed as a public health problem. Provide comprehensive services, sensitize and train health care providers in responding to the needs of survivors holistically and empathetically.

Prevent recurrence of violence through early identification of women and children who are experiencing violence and providing appropriate referral and support Promote egalitarian gender norms as part of life skills and comprehensive sexuality education curricula taught to young people.

Generate evidence on what works and on the magnitude of the problem by carrying out population-based surveys, or including violence against women in population-based demographic and health surveys, as well as in surveillance and health information systems. WHO response At the World Health Assembly in May 2016, Member States endorsed a global plan of action on strengthening the role of the health systems in addressing interpersonal violence, in particular against women and girls and against children.

Global plan of action to strengthen the role of the health system within a national multisectoral response to address interpersonal violence, in particular against women and girls, and against children WHO, in collaboration with partners, is: Building the evidence base on the size and nature of violence against women in different settings and supporting countries' efforts to document and measure this violence and its consequences, including improving the methods for measuring violence against women in the context of monitoring for the Sustainable Development Goals.

This is central to understanding the magnitude and nature of the problem and to initiating action in countries and globally. Strengthening research and capacity to assess interventions to address partner violence. Undertaking interventions research to test and identify effective health sector interventions to address violence against women.

Developing guidelines and implementation tools for strengthening the health sector response to intimate partner and sexual violence and synthesizing evidence on what works to prevent such violence. Supporting countries and partners to implement the global plan of action on violence by: Declaration on the elimination of violence against women.