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A history of the united states during world war ii

Visit Website This fear of attack translated into a ready acceptance by a majority of Americans of the need to sacrifice in order to achieve victory. During the spring of 1942, a rationing program was established that set limits on the amount of gas, food and clothing consumers could purchase. Families were issued ration stamps that were used to buy their allotment of everything from meat, sugar, fat, butter, vegetables and fruit to gas, tires, clothing and fuel oil.

The U.S. Home Front During World War II

Meanwhile, individuals and communities conducted drives for the collection of scrap metal, aluminum cans and rubber, all of which were recycled and used to produce armaments. Many of these workers were women. Indeed, with tens of thousands of American men joining the armed forces and heading into training and into battle, women began securing jobs as welders, electricians and riveters in defense plants.

  • No other war mobilized and instrumentalized culture in general and music in particular so totally, so consciously, and so unequivocally as World War II;
  • During the war, 95 percent of all professional baseball players who donned major league uniforms during the 1941 season were directly involved in the conflict;
  • When Japan invaded China in 1937, however, he seemed to begin moving away from isolationism;
  • During the war, 95 percent of all professional baseball players who donned major league uniforms during the 1941 season were directly involved in the conflict;
  • During the spring of 1942, a rationing program was established that set limits on the amount of gas, food and clothing consumers could purchase;
  • Classical music was heard on the radio and in film scores; it was performed in the Armed Forces; and it even played a role in the work of the Office of Strategic Services OSS; the predecessor to the CIA , whose director, General "Wild Bill" Donovan, was known not only to support experiments about music as a cipher code, but also to involve himself in music-related affairs, including the case of smuggling Shostakovich's Seventh Symphony out of Russia.

Until that time, such positions had been strictly for men only. Soon afterward, Walter Pidgeon 1897-1984a Hollywood leading man, traveled to the Willow Run aircraft plant in Ypsilanti, Michiganto make a promotional film encouraging the sale of war bonds. One of the women employed at the factory, Rose Will Monroe 1920-97was a riveter involved in the construction of B-24 and B-29 bombers. During the war years, the decrease in the availability of men in the work force also led to an upsurge in the number of women holding non-war-related factory jobs.

Lend-Lease and Military Aid to the Allies in the Early Years of World War II

By the mid-1940s, the percentage of women in the American work force had expanded from 25 percent to 36 percent. Just over two months after Pearl Harbor, U.

President Franklin Roosevelt 1882-1945 signed into law Executive Order 9066, which resulted in the removal from their communities and the subsequent imprisonment of all Americans of Japanese descent who resided on the West Coast. Executive Order 9066 was the offshoot of a combination of wartime panic and the belief on the part of some that anyone of Japanese ancestry, even those who were born in the U. Despite the internment of their family members, young Japanese-American men fought bravely in Italy, France and Germany between 1943 and 1945 as members of the U.

By the end of the war, the 100th had become the most decorated combat unit of its size in Army history. Baseball and the Battlefield In January 1942, Kenesaw Mountain Landis 1866-1944the national commissioner of baseball, wrote a letter to President Roosevelt in which he asked if professional baseball should shut down for the duration of the war.

During the war, 95 percent of all professional baseball players who donned major league uniforms during the 1941 season were directly involved in the conflict.

Sounds of War

Feller, in fact, enlisted in the U. Navy one day after Pearl Harbor. Because baseball was depleted of so many able bodies, athletes who otherwise likely never would have made the big leagues won spots on rosters. One of the more notable was Pete Gray 1915-2002a one-armed outfielder who appeared in 77 games for the St. Louis Browns in 1945. Not all those who served in the military were superstars.

Over 120 minor leaguers also were killed. Other players overcame debilitating wartime injuries.

  1. Stronger legislation followed the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, in effect penalizing the Spanish government, whose fascist enemies were receiving strong support from Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler.
  2. Marshall and others therefore argued that U.
  3. Pacific Fleet and to conquer Southeast Asia , thereby becoming self-sufficient in crude oil and other vital resources.

One was Bert Shepard 1920-2008a minor league pitcher turned air force fighter pilot. The following year, he pitched three innings for the Washington Senators in a major league game. The movie-going experience included a newsreel, which lasted approximately 10 minutes and was loaded with images and accounts of recent battles, followed by an animated cartoon.

As for the main program, movie theaters showed non-war-related dramas, comedies, mysteries and Westerns; however, a significant segment of feature films dealt directly with the war. Scores of features spotlighted the trials of men in combat while demonizing the Nazis and Japanese who perpetuated the conflict. Many appeared in government-produced training films and morale-boosting short subjects. Others participated directly in the fighting.

Clark Gable 1901-60the beloved, Academy Award-winning actor, served as a tail-gunner with the U. Army Air Corps and flew combat missions over Germany. James Stewart 1908-97another equally adored Oscar winner, had enlisted in the corps even before Pearl Harbor. He eventually became a B-24 combat pilot and commander and also flew missions over Germany.

They were riveted by the frontline reports from such legendary journalists as Edward R. These programs were aired directly on the radio to listeners from Maine to California. Dramatic radio programming increasingly featured war-related storylines. Citation Information The U.