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A life and work of raffaello santi

His mother died in 1491. His father was, according to the 16th-century artist and biographer Giorgio Vasari, a painter "of no great merit. He gave his son his first instruction in painting, and, before his death in 1494, when Raphael was 11, he had introduced the boy to humanistic philosophy at the court. Urbino had become a centre of culture during the rule of Duke Federico da Montefeltro, who encouraged the arts and attracted the visits of men of outstanding talent, including Donato Bramante, Piero della Francesca, and Leon Battista Alberti, to his court.

Although Raphael would be influenced by major artists in Florence and Rome, Urbino constituted the basis for all his subsequent learning. Furthermore, the cultural vitality of the city probably stimulated the exceptional precociousness of the young artist, who, even at the beginning of the 16th century, when he was scarcely 17 years old, already displayed an extraordinary talent.

He was born at Colbordolo in the Duchy of Urbino. He was a petty merchant for a time; he then studied under Piero della Francesca. He died in Urbino. Apprenticeship at Perugia The date of Raphael's arrival in Perugia is not known, but several scholars place it in 1495.

The first record of Raphael's activity as a painter is found there in a document of December 10, 1500, declaring that the young painter, by then called a "master," was commissioned to help paint an altarpiece to be completed by September 13, 1502. It is clear from this that Raphael had already given proof of his mastery, so much so that between 1501 and 1503 he received a rather important commission - to paint the Coronation of the Virgin for the Oddi Chapel in the church of San Francesco, Perugia and now in the Vatican Museum, Rome.

The great Umbrian master Pietro Perugino was executing the frescoes in the Collegio del Cambio at Perugia between 1498 and 1500, enabling Raphael, as a member of his workshop, to acquire extensive professional knowledge.

In addition to this practical instruction, Perugino's calmly exquisite style also influenced Raphael. The Giving of the Keys to St. Perugino's influence is seen in the emphasis on perspectives, in the graded relationships between the figures and the architecture, and in the lyrical sweetness of the figures. Raffaello led by Father Giovanni Santi to Perugia from Perugino Nevertheless, even in this early painting, it is clear that Raphael's sensibility was different from his teacher's.

The disposition of the figures is less rigidly related to the architecture, and the disposition of each figure in relation to a life and work of raffaello santi others is more informal and animated.

The sweetness of the figures and the gentle relation between them surpasses anything in Perugino's work. Michael - are masterful examples of narrative painting, showing, as well as youthful freshness, a maturing ability to control the elements of his own style.

Although he had learned much from Perugino, Raphael by late 1504 needed other models to work from; it is clear that his desire for knowledge was driving him to look beyond Perugia. Quick to Learn Raphael Sanzio showed an early talent as a painter and architect, and at age 11, he was taken to Perugia, in Umbria, to be an apprentice under the painter Pietro Perugino.

Imitating his style closely, Raphael's paintings under his master were so similar to his teacher's that it is difficult to discern who a life and work of raffaello santi what. By the year 1500, when Raphael was only 17, he was already considered a master of his craft.

By the autumn of 1504 Raphael had certainly arrived in Florence.

It is not known if this was his first visit to Florence, but, as his works attest, it was about 1504 that he first came into substantial contact with this artistic civilization, which reinforced all the ideas he had already acquired and also opened to him new and broader horizons. Vasari records that he studied not only the works of Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Fra Bartolomeo, who were the masters of the High Renaissance, but also "the old things of Masaccio," a pioneer of the naturalism that marked the departure of the early Renaissance from the Gothic.

Still, his principal teachers in Florence were Leonardo and Michelangelo.

Many of the works that Raphael executed in the years between 1505 and 1507, most notably a great series of Madonnas including The Madonna of the Goldfinch 1505; Uffizi Gallery, Florencethe Madonna del Prato c. Raphael was particularly influenced by Leonardo's Madonna and Child with St.

Anne pictures, which are marked by an intimacy and simplicity of setting uncommon in 15th-century art. Raphael learned the Florentine method of building up his composition in depth with pyramidal figure masses; the figures are grouped as a single unit, but each retains its own individuality and shape.

A new unity of composition and suppression of inessentials distinguishes the works he painted in Florence. Raphael also owed much to Leonardo's lighting techniques; he made moderate use of Leonardo's chiaroscuro i.

  1. He started an apprenticeship with Umbrian master Pietro Perugino.
  2. Orphaned, Raphael lived with his uncle Bartolomeo, a priest. In these pictures Raphael created prototypes that would influence the European tradition of narrative history painting for centuries to come.
  3. Raphael full name raffaello sanzi or santi raphael's finest work in the genre is perhaps the portrait of baldassare castiglione life and biography.

Raphael went beyond Leonardo, however, in creating new figure types whose round, gentle faces reveal uncomplicated and typically human sentiments but raised to a sublime perfection and serenity.

In this work, it is obvious that Raphael set himself deliberately to learn from Michelangelo the expressive possibilities of human anatomy. But Raphael differed from Leonardo and Michelangelo, who were both painters of dark intensity and excitement, in that he wished to develop a calmer and more extroverted style that would serve as a popular, universally accessible form of visual communication.

At this time Raphael was little known in Rome, but the young man soon made a deep impression on the volatile Julius and the papal court, and his authority as a master grew day by day. Raphael was endowed with a handsome appearance and great personal charm in addition to his prodigious artistic talents, and he eventually became so popular that he was called a life and work of raffaello santi prince of painters.

They were years of feverish activity and successive masterpieces. His first task in the city was to paint a cycle of frescoes in a suite of medium-sized rooms in the Vatican papal apartments in which Julius himself lived and worked; these rooms are known simply as the Stanze. The Stanza della Segnatura 1508-1511 and Stanza d'Eliodoro 1512-1514 were decorated practically entirely by Raphael himself; the murals in the Stanza dell'Incendio 1514-1517though designed by Raphael, were largely executed by his numerous assistants and pupils.

Julius II was a highly cultured man who surrounded himself with the most illustrious personalities of the Renaissance. He entrusted Bramante with the construction of a new basilica of St.

Peter to replace the original 4th-century church; he called upon Michelangelo to execute his tomb and compelled him against his will to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; and, sensing the genius of Raphael, he committed into his hands the interpretation of the philosophical scheme of the frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura.

This theme was the historical justification of the power of the Roman Catholic church through Neoplatonic philosophy.

Raphael Sanzio

The four main fresco walls in the Stanza della Segnatura are occupied by the Disputa and the School of Athens on the larger walls and the Parnassus and Cardinal Virtues on the smaller walls. The two most important of these frescoes are the Disputa and the School of Athens. The Disputa, showing a celestial vision of God and his prophets and apostles above a gathering of representatives, past and present, of the Roman Catholic church, equates through its iconography the triumph of the church and the triumph of truth.

Franz and Christian von Hausen Riepe Riepenhausen Pope Julius II invite Raphael Engraving, 1816 Franz and Christian von Hausen Riepe Riepenhausen Raphael and Madonna with child from the right Evangelist Luke with the bull Engraving, 1816 The School of Athens is a complex allegory of secular knowledge, or philosophy, showing Plato and Aristotle surrounded by philosophers, past and present, in a splendid architectural setting; it illustrates the historical continuity of Platonic thought.

  1. Also, because he was friends with the architect Bramante, he got a sneak peak at the Sistine Chapel, and was awestruck by the beauty of it. They have stylistic and technique similarities like thickly applied paint, and they both use a varnish which causes the finished piece paint to crack.
  2. The Disputa, showing a celestial vision of God and his prophets and apostles above a gathering of representatives, past and present, of the Roman Catholic church, equates through its iconography the triumph of the church and the triumph of truth.
  3. It shows the Cyclops Polythemus fleeing. Raffaello led by Father Giovanni Santi to Perugia from Perugino Nevertheless, even in this early painting, it is clear that Raphael's sensibility was different from his teacher's.
  4. Anne pictures, which are marked by an intimacy and simplicity of setting uncommon in 15th-century art. He died in Urbino.
  5. They were years of feverish activity and successive masterpieces.

The School of Athens is perhaps the most famous of all Raphael's frescoes, and one of the culminating artworks of the High Renaissance. Here Raphael fills an ordered and stable space with figures in a rich variety of poses and gestures, which he controls in order to make one group of figures lead to the next in an interweaving and interlocking pattern, bringing the eye to the central figures of Plato and Aristotle at the converging point of the perspectival space.

The space in which the philosophers congregate is defined by the pilasters and barrel vaults of a great basilica that is based on Bramante's a life and work of raffaello santi for the new St Peter's in Rome. The general effect of the fresco is one of majestic calm, clarity, and equilibrium.

About the same time, probably in 1511, Raphael painted a more secular subject, the Triumph of Galatea in the Villa Farnesina in Rome; this work was perhaps the High Renaissance's most successful evocation of the living spirit of classical antiquity. Meanwhile, Raphael's decoration of the papal apartments continued after the death of Julius in 1513 and into the succeeding pontificate of Leo X until 1517.

In contrast to the generalized allegories in the Stanza della Segnatura, the decorations in the second room, the Stanza d'Eliodoro, portray specific miraculous events in the history of the Christian church. These frescoes are deeper and richer in colour than are those in the earlier room, and they display a new boldness on Raphael's part in both their dramatic subjects and their unusual effects of light.

The Liberation of St Peter, for example, is a night scene and contains three separate lighting effects - moonlight, the torch carried by a soldier, and the supernatural light emanating from an angel. Raphael delegated his assistants to decorate the third room, the Stanze dell'Incendio, with the exception of one fresco, the Fire in the Borgo, in which his pursuit of more dramatic pictorial incidents and his continuing study of the male nude are plainly apparent.

Raphael Adjusting his Model's Pose for his Painting of the Virgin and Child oil on canvas The Madonnas that Raphael painted in Rome show him turning away from the serenity and gentleness of his earlier works in order to emphasize qualities of energetic movement and grandeur. His Alba Madonna 1508; National Gallery, Washington epitomizes the serene sweetness of the Florentine Madonnas but shows a new maturity of emotional expression and supreme technical sophistication in the poses of the figures.

It was followed by the Madonna di Foligno 1510; Vatican Museum and the Sistine Madonna 1513; Gemaldegalerie, Dresdenwhich show both the richness of colour and new boldness in compositional invention typical of Raphael's Roman period.

Some of his other late Madonnas, such as the Madonna of Francis I Louvreare remarkable for their polished elegance.

Besides his other accomplishments, Raphael became the most important portraitist in Rome during the first two decades of the 16th century.

He introduced new types of presentation and new psychological situations for his sitters, as seen in the portrait of Leo X with Two Cardinals 1517-19; Uffizi, Florence. Raphael's finest work in the genre is perhaps the Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione 1516; Louvrea brilliant and arresting character study. Leo X commissioned Raphael to design 10 large tapestries to hang on the walls of the Sistine Chapel.

Seven of the ten cartoons full-size preparatory drawings were completed by 1516, and the tapestries woven after them were hung in place in the chapel by 1519. The tapestries themselves are still in the Vatican, while seven of Raphael's original cartoons are in the British royal collection and are on view at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.

In these pictures Raphael created prototypes that would influence the European tradition of narrative history painting for centuries to come.

A life and work of raffaello santi

The cartoons display Raphael's keen sense of drama, his use of gestures and facial expressions to portray emotion, and his incorporation of credible physical settings from both the natural world and that of ancient Roman architecture. While he was at work in the Stanza della Segnatura, Raphael also did his first architectural work, designing the church of Sant' Eligio degli Orefici.

In 1513 the banker Agostino Chigi, whose Villa Farnesina Raphael had already decorated, commissioned him to design and decorate his funerary chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo. In 1514 Leo X chose him to work on the basilica of St Peter's alongside Bramante; and when Bramante died later that year, Raphael assumed the direction of the work, transforming the plans of the church from a Greek, or radial, to a Latin, or longitudinal, design.

Raphael was also a keen student of archaeology and of ancient Greco-Roman sculpture, echoes of which are apparent in his paintings of the human figure during the Roman period.

In 1515 Leo X put him in charge of the supervision of the preservation of marbles bearing valuable Latin inscriptions; two years later he was appointed commissioner of antiquities for the city, and he drew up an archaeological map of Rome. Raphael had by this time been put in charge of virtually all of the papacy's various artistic projects in Rome, involving architecture, paintings and decoration, and the preservation of antiquities.

Raphael's last masterpiece is the Transfiguration commissioned in 1517an enormous altarpiece that was unfinished at his death and completed by his assistant Giulio Romano. It now hangs in the Vatican Museum. The Transfiguration is a complex work that combines extreme formal polish and elegance of execution with an atmosphere of tension and violence communicated by the agitated gestures of closely crowded groups of figures.

It shows a new sensibility that is like the prevision of a new world, turbulent and dynamic; in its a life and work of raffaello santi and composition it inaugurated the Mannerist movement and tends toward an expression that may even be called Baroque.

  • Raphael full name raffaello sanzi or santi raphael's finest work in the genre is perhaps the portrait of baldassare castiglione life and biography;
  • Raphael was an accomplished architect as well as painter;
  • His style though, is very hard to tell apart from his teacher.

Raphael died on his 37th birthday. His funeral mass was celebrated at the Vatican, his Transfiguration was placed at the head of the bier, and his body was buried in the Pantheon in Rome.