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Help with writing a paper for ethics on human trafficking

Forefront of Human Rights Issues: Schatz1 1University of Wyoming; 2The University of Texas Author Note The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of graduate student Marci Conley for her help with manuscript revisions. However, the authors acknowledge that the term victim is not meant in any way to be demeaning or to label these individuals. We honor their integrity and their life journey. Abstract Curriculum content including learning strategies about human trafficking can be integrated into social work programs through the core content courses, enabling future practitioners to competently serve and advocate for victims as well as examine human trafficking policies at national and global levels.

However, teaching about human trafficking is difficult due to the lack of evidence-based information. Using existing information, students can gain an understanding of an insidious worldwide phenomenon, which targets the most vulnerable populations including children, women, and youth for mere economic gains.

This paper describes strategies for incorporating the topic of human trafficking as a social justice issue into core social work courses. This curricular area offers a topic of global and local significance that should be of paramount concern to the social work profession and its educators. The issue of human trafficking has received increased attention in recent years from a broad range of groups including government officials, media outlets, faith-based organizations, and feminist groups.

While the trafficking of human beings is not a new crisis, recent policies and investigations have increased protection for victims and awareness across countries e.

Social workers are in a particularly important position to identify, assist, and advocate for victims of trafficking. Information about human trafficking can be integrated into the social work curriculum through the core content courses. The integration can enable future practitioners to competently serve and advocate for victims of trafficking.

This paper discusses the importance of including trafficking information in social work courses, provides basic background information needed to teach about human trafficking, and suggests classroom strategies to engage students in learning about human trafficking.

Inherent in help with writing a paper for ethics on human trafficking definition is the premise that all people have a right to their own livelihood, safety, and freedom. Despite the dire nature of human trafficking, there is still a tendency for society to ignore the depth of the problem. People in general believe, for example, that prostitutes are at risk to become trafficked and some may view this as a reason to blame them. In fact, these women often endure serious physical problems due to daily repeated unwanted sexual engagements and serious physical and sexual assaults e.

Additionally, widespread misinterpretations exist regarding trafficking. Sadly, trafficking victims forced into prostitution, domestic servitude, or other labor industries are sometimes denied basic human rights because they are mistaken for undocumented migrants and thus, vulnerable to arrest and deportation.

This idea is especially dangerous though prominent in the current political milieu in the United States, which is marked by anti-immigrant sentiments Bhuyan, 2010; Jordan, 2002. Government officials often do not differentiate between undocumented migrants and trafficked persons, ignoring international human rights law, resulting in the deportation of trafficking victims Jordan, 2002.

Guided by their professional core, social workers can advocate for and provide services for those persons who are trafficked, addressing the human rights concerns Steen, 2006; Witkin, 1998. Understanding Human Trafficking Despite increased media attention regarding human trafficking, along with a growing number of studies and articles, teaching others--whether the general public or those in academic environments, about human trafficking has challenges.

Human Trafficking

One challenge can be attributed to the lack of rigorous research studies and grounded evidence-based practice information. A second challenge is the difficult, often disturbing content to be delivered to students.

  1. Group work with victims of trafficking offers important experiences for social work practice students. Key findings and lessons learned.
  2. Pimps are traffickers and they sell women between each other for various reasons Hodge, 2008.
  3. There exists controversy surrounding the extent of trafficking. Global report on trafficking in persons.
  4. However, teaching about human trafficking is difficult due to the lack of evidence-based information. It deals with the complex issues of corporate liability in respect to demand for forced labour, and the role of the state in regulation.

Our task as educators is to foster learning that helps students grasp the complexity and gravity of trafficking as a global and local problem. Issues including how to provide services to victims, what types of support survivors need, lack of clarity on numbers of individuals trafficked, and the recognition that trafficking victims are a hidden population and difficult to reach illustrates the need for a greater depth of knowledge to better inform students and professionals in the field.

Later in this article, some of these methodological and ethical issues are introduced. However, by using available information, educators can foster learning in a wide range of issues and circumstances surrounding the topic and aid students in gaining an understanding of the dynamics of human trafficking.

Before introducing a broadly constructed curricular approach for new course content on trafficking, we will provide a few key points about the definitions related to persons who are trafficked, the magnitude of the problem, and some examples addressing current laws and legal concerns faced by those in these difficult personal situations. Definitions of Trafficking Defining human trafficking is a complex endeavor and various non-profits and governmental agencies have their own definitions.

The United States has a similar definition. Department of State, 2016. Prosecution of trafficking cases and legal protections for victims in the United States depend on individual cases falling within this definition.

Is a person being forced or coerced to provide labor or being exploited into working with no other real option? If the answer to either question is yes, the person may be a victim of trafficking. Prostitution, in countries where this is legal, is viewed as a career choice for men and women who engage in the sale of sex acts. There is debate about prostitution legal reform in the U. Despite this distinction, there is controversy in discussions related to prostitution and human trafficking.

As stated, some advocates, particularly from faith-based organizations, argue that all prostitution is involuntary on some level and that prostitutes should be considered sex slaves McKelvey, 2004. In addition, the concept of smuggling often blurs the definition of trafficking. Smuggling may turn into trafficking if people are exploited after being brought to the new country. If smugglers hold migrants and coerce or force them into prostitution, labor, or other dehumanizing activities U.

Again, the key question to ask is: Are the individuals being forced or coerced into activities against their will? When answering this question, there are still difficulties in identifying victims of trafficking U.

Department of Health, 2012. Identifying trends of domestic trafficking is difficult to determine, as similarly to international trafficking, many victims do not report.

The numbers of domestic sex trafficking victims could exceed foreign nationals according to Hughes 2007. Therefore, it is essential social service providers identify these victims and help with writing a paper for ethics on human trafficking further victimization at the hands of perpetrators. Magnitude of human trafficking. The Polaris Project, an advocacy organization dedicated to ending word slavery, provides statistical information on human trafficking and is viewed as a reliable data source see http: They state trafficking is widespread and affects almost 161 countries.

The most recent, Trafficking in Persons Report U. Department of State, 2014estimates there are 20 million individuals worldwide including men, women, and children who are involved in commercial sex or forced labor besides 44,000 survivors who have been identified in the past year.

Forefront of Human Rights Issues: Integrating Human Trafficking into the Social Work Curriculum

The International Labor Organization 2012based on new improved methodology and data sources, estimates there are 20. Fifty-five percent are women and girls while 9. Twenty-six percent of the total 5. There exists controversy surrounding the extent of trafficking. In fact, there are no accurate statistics on the number of people trafficked each year.

  • Social Work, 51 2 , 101-105;
  • Cultural competency is a crucial issue when working with victims of trafficking.

There are various reasons for lack of exact statistics. The majority of data on trafficking victims includes approximations of numbers of women and children who have been sexually exploited. State Department has called for increased awareness of trafficking of young boys for sex trade industry work U.

Department of State, 2008. To date, little research attention has been given to men and boys who are trafficked for labor in places such as sweatshops, the agricultural sector, and other domestic worksites United States Department of State, 2005. Countries vary in Combating Trafficking The U. S Department of State, 2014. Additionally, countries are classified based on their role in international trafficking. Countries may be origin countries from which victims are trafficked. They may be transit countries through which victims are trafficked.

They may be destination countries to which victims are trafficked. Finally, some countries may be classified in all three of these roles. Causes of Human Trafficking People are trafficked into any number of industries including sex work, domestic servitude, or labor industries, such as agriculture and sweatshops Konrad, 2002; Richard, 1999.

While sex trafficking tends to receive more attention, there is a greater trend to traffic humans for labor purposes Feingold, 2005. Victims fall prey due to the poverty, lack of opportunity in their community, corrupt governments, political volatility, and violence against women and children coupled with the prospect of something better in another community Clawson et al. Department of State, 2006. For example, the constant demand of women in the sex industry is a supply factor leading to trafficking Hodge, 2008.

Pimps are traffickers and they sell women between each other for various reasons Hodge, 2008. These perpetrators see trafficking as a means of economic gain. Help with writing a paper for ethics on human trafficking happens now, 2016. Internationally trafficked victims feared deportation if they were identified as being in the country illegally.

TVPA recognized these individuals as victims, afforded them protections, and ensured assistance once identified as potential trafficking victims. Trafficking in Persons Report of 2013 indicates several countries including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Somalia, and Zimbabwe, to name a few, have ratified the UN protocol to prevent trafficking U.

Department of State, 2013. Even with the protections of TVPA, advocates find there can be problems protecting and assisting victims. In order to obtain all the legal protections afforded under TVPA, victims must cooperate with law enforcement. The certification process in which they are identified as victims requires them to relive traumatic experiences during the legal process.

The TVPA, in 2008, eased the participation requirements of assisting law enforcement in cases of severe situations of trafficking; for example, for victims with physical and psychological trauma H. S Department of Homeland Security, 2016. Professional Service Needs of Victims Regardless of how they were identified, persons who have been victims of trafficking have immediate, basic needs, such as housing, food, and safety Aron et al.

As stated, victims of human trafficking live in the shadows of professional services mostly due to fear of retribution and deportation.

What are some topics I can talk about in a paper on human trafficking?

Information that does address service needs suggests victims have multiple and complex needs. For instance, in the U. Those who had a friend or ally help them escape their situation may be more prone to cooperate with law enforcement Aron et al. Health care needs are not adequately met for trafficked people. In cases of sex trafficking, healthcare may be a particularly important need. Other factors impacting both physical and mental health include substance abuse, occupational illness, sexual abuse, psychological illnesses, isolation and poverty.